Features - Update to International Commercial Arbitration: Locating the Resources

Jean M. Wenger is the Government Documents/Foreign & International Law Librarian at the Cook County Law Library, a practitioner's law library in Chicago. Jean has authored a number of web-based foreign and international law research guides and has spoken at professional conferences on Internet training issues and foreign and international law research. Her publications include the chapter on International Economic Law (http://www.asil.org/resource/iel1.htm) in the ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law. Jean holds B.A., J.D. and M.L.I.S. degrees. She is admitted to the state bar of Illinois and has taught CLE programs focusing on electronic research. Jean is 2003-2004 Chair of the Foreign, Comparative & International Law Special Interest Section, American Association of Law Libraries. (http://www.lawsch.uga.edu/fcil/fcil.html)


Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. Major Works and Publications
A. Primers
B. Meta Resources
1. Subscription Services
2. Free Web Resources
III. Treaties and Conventions
A. International and Regional Treaties and Conventions
B.  Bilateral Investment Treaties
C. Treaty Compilations
IV. Arbitral Institutions
A. Administering Institutions
1. International and Regional Institutions
2. National Institutions
3. Compilations of Arbitral Institutions
B. Arbitrators
C. Cooperative Agreements between Arbitral Institutions
V. Arbitration Rules

A. International and Regional Arbitration Rules

B. National Arbitration Rules
C. Arbitration Rules Compilations
VI. National Law
A. Country Listing
B. National Law Compilations
VII. Drafting Arbitration Clauses – Model Clauses
VIII. Decisions and Awards
IX. Specialized Arbitration
A. Intellectual Property
B. Maritime
C. Sports
X. Locating Literature and Resources
A. Online Library Catalogs
B. Journals/Periodicals/Newsletters

1. Search and Identification
a. Subscription Services
b. Free Web-based Finding Tools
2. Specialized Journals
3. Selected Free Web-based Article
C. Bibliographies
D. Lexis and Westlaw
XI. Associations
 

I. Introduction

International commercial arbitration is one of several forms of dispute resolution for international commercial agreements. The use of arbitration has increased along with the growth of international trade and commerce and the accompanying disputes springing from these pursuits. In its broadest sense, arbitration is a vehicle of dispute resolution in which parties to a contract select a neutral arbitrator (or a panel of arbitrators) to present their dispute for a legally binding ruling. Arbitration is often selected for the reasons of confidentiality, speed, enforceability of arbitral awards, and to eliminate the uncertainties in the choice of arbitrator and forum. Parties from different national origins may also be reluctant to accept national court litigation with the potential for national bias. Arbitration offers the parties more control over how proceedings will be conducted. Arbitration awards are, with rare exception, final and binding.

International commercial arbitration has many different issues and the researcher needs to have access to numerous resources to make informed decisions. Since no individual format provides exhaustive coverage of international commercial arbitration resources, both print and electronic resources are presented in this guide.

This guide introduces both primers and a selection of the large, comprehensive compilations of international arbitration resources. Resources are presented under functional component parts: treaties, institutions, rules, national laws, awards, and literature. To facilitate quickly identifying resources, each part of this guide will list selected individual titles and web sites, and the relevant components of the comprehensive compilations. Section X: Locating Literature and Resources offers the user of this guide a starting point to locate additional resources.

II. Major Works and Publications

A. Primers and Treatises

Primers offer a starting point for research and an overview of the issues involved in international commercial arbitration. The works listed below offer a combination of print and electronic resources. For more comprehensive publications, see II.B. Meta Resources below.

Alternative Dispute Resolution, 2001 Edition. Springfield, IL: Illinois Institute for Continuing Legal Education (IICLE), 2001 Smith, Stephen E. Chapter 23:

International Arbitration and Mediation, http://www.cidra.org/articles/chapt23/chapt23.htms

American Arbitration Association (AAA) - Focus Area: International
A collection of pertinent links for foreign arbitration including guides, fact sheets, Drafting Dispute Resolution Clauses – A Practical Guide, Beginner's Guide to ADR, and Fact Sheets for international issues.

The American Society of International Law (ASIL) ASIL is dedicated to advancing the study and use of international law. Dispute resolution is among the many international law topics addressed by ASIL.The dispute resolution page provides links to articles written by international law specialists including Clifford Larsen’s article: "International Commercial Arbitration" ASIL Insight (April 1997) http://www.asil.org/insights/insight6.htm

Born, Gary B. International Commercial Arbitration in the United States: Commentary & Materials, 2d ed. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers; The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2001. Edmondson,

Larry E. ed. Domke on Commercial Arbitration, 3rd. St. Paul, MN: Thomson/West, 2003-. Also available on Westlaw (DCMLARB) Frommel, Stefan N. and Barry A. K. Rider, eds.

Conflicting Legal Cultures in Commercial Arbitration: Old Issues and New Trends. The Hague; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1999.

Germain, Claire M. Germain's Transnational Law Research: A Guide for Attorneys. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, Inc., 1991-.
“International Commercial Arbitration” at IV-39-IV-64.
Includes annotated listings of major print and electronic resources for international commercial arbitration.

Hill, Richard. “Primer on International Arbitration” (July 1995) http://www.batnet.com/oikoumene/arbprim.html

International Arbitration Law Library
is a series published by Kluwer Law International. Recent titles include:

  • Frick, Joachim G. Arbitration in Complex International Contracts.  The Hague; New York: Kluwer Law International (2001)
  • Gharavi, Hamid G. International Effectiveness of the Annulment of an Arbitral Award. The Hague; New York: Kluwer Law International (2002)

  • Lynch, Katherine. The Forces of Economic Globalization: Challenges to the Regime of International Commercial Arbitration.
  •   The Hague; New York: Kluwer Law International (2003)

    International Business Litigation & Arbitration, 2000 / Chair, John Fellas.  New York, NY: Practising Law Institute, 2000-.
    An annual course handbook. Practitioner-oriented material with some primary materials reproduced.

    Lew, Julian D. M., Loukas A. Mistelis and Stefan Kröll. Comparative International Commercial Arbitration. The Hague; New York: Kluwer Law International, 2003.

    Lookofsky, Joseph M. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration: A Comparative Analysis of American European and International Law. Ardsley-on-Hudson, NY: Transnational Juris Publications, 1992.

    Lucash, Richard M. Arbitration in International Computer Contracts http://www.lgu.com/publications/international/1.shtml
    Provides a brief overview of international arbitration issues. From the law firm of Lucash, Gesmer & Updegrove LLP.

    Marks, Merton E. New Trends in Domestic and International Commercial Arbitration and Mediation (2000) http://www.cidra.org/articles/newtrends.htm

    Nickerson, Kathryn Helne. International Arbitration. http://www.osec.doc.gov/ogc/occic/arb-98.html
    A primer prepared by a senior attorney in the Office of General Counsel, United States Department of Commerce.

    Oehmke, Thomas H. International Arbitration, 3d. St. Paul, MN: ThomsonWest, 2003-.

    Paulsson, Jan, William W. Park, and W. Laurence Craig. International Chamber of Commerce Arbitration, 3rd ed. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 2000.

    Redfern, Alan and Martin Hunter. Law & Practice of International Commercial Arbitration. 3rd ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1999.

    Rhoades, Rufus V., Daniel M. Kolkey and Richard Chernick. Practitioner's Handbook on International Arbitration and Mediation. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 2002.

    Smit, Hans and Vratislav Pechota, ed. International Commercial Arbitration and the Courts, Revised 3rd Edition. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 2002-. Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration

    UNCITRAL Notes on Organizing Arbitral Proceedings http://www.uncitral.org/english/texts/arbitration/arb-notes.htm
    These non-binding notes are aimed at helping practitioners better organize and plan for arbitration by addressing FAQs. Focusing on international arbitration, the notes are useful with or without the involvement of an arbitral institution.

    Weigand, Frank-Bernd ed. Practitioner’s Handbook on International Arbitration.  Munich: Beck, 2002.

    B. Meta Resources

    The following meta resources are sizable collections of primary resources and commentary on international commercial arbitration. These collections contain either full-text documents, or in the case of some electronic and web-based guides, links to resources dealing with commercial arbitration in an international context. These meta resources can be used to locate and identify many of the components of international commercial arbitration highlighted in the guide, such as commentary, treaties, arbitral institutions, arbitration rules, and national laws.

    1. Subscription Services 

    Arbitration CD-ROM: Resources on International Commercial Arbitration. The Hague; New York: Kluwer Law International, 1998-.
    A subscription Folio-based product providing fully searchable legislation, rules, awards, case law, arbitration treaties, conventions, commentary, complete commentary on the New York Convention, and bibliographies.

    ArbitrationLaw Online, Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing
    http://www.arbitrationlaw.com/online/
    Fully searchable database including laws (in English translation), rules of international and national institutions, arbitral and judicial decisions, international treaties and conventions, roster of arbitrators, commentary, journals and newsletters, and jurisdiction specific information. A subscription service. Updated daily.

    Benedict on Admiralty 7th ed., rev. New York: Matthew Bender, 1974-.
    Volume 9 “Marine Arbitration” contains short commentary, and the texts of treaties, national laws, arbitration rules, conciliation rules, ethics rules, and court forms.

    Bergsten, Eric E. ed., (Clive M. Schmitthoff, founding ed.) International Commercial Arbitration. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1980-.
    Binder 1 contains multilateral, regional and international conventions and instruments. Binders 2-6 contain national rules and enactments (in alpha order).

    Bogard, Lawrence J. and George W. Thompson. Transnational Contracts. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1997-.
    This four-volume treatise contains information on ICSID Arbitration, texts of selected arbitration conventions, arbitration laws, rules and regulations.

    The International Arbitration Kit: A Compilation of Basic and Frequently Requested Documents. Completely rev. 4th ed. Compiled and edited by Laura Ferris Brown. New York: American Arbitration Association, 1993.
    Includes texts of conventions, treaties, U.S. laws pertaining to arbitration, rules and procedures, and inter-association agreements.

    International Legal Materials [ILM]
    American Society of International Law, 1962-.
    Selectively reprints arbitration decisions and awards, arbitral institution rules, laws, and documents relating to international arbitration. ILM is often the first place international law materials are published. WESTLAW (ILM) and LEXIS (INTLAW/ILM).

    KluwerArbitration.com
    http://www.internationalADR.com/arbitration/arb/default.asp
    KluwerArbitration.com is a comprehensive subscription database of primary and secondary international arbitration materials in full text. Searchable categories include conventions, institutions, rules, bilateral investment treaties (BIT), model clauses, case law, commentary, country index, and events. Some materials available for free. The system enables even the non-subscribed user to drill down to a specific level. For example, selecting legislation offers a choice between model and national laws. Selecting national laws provides the option of selecting a country, then a choice of years, and the name and date of legislation from the selected year. To view the full-text law requires that the user be a subscriber. A sampling of laws is available without charge. Presented by the ITA, the Permanent Court of Arbitration, International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA) and Kluwer Law International.

    Smit’s Guides to International Arbitration, Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing
    This set contains the following volumes, which are available as a set or volumes can be acquired individually: Arbitration Rules-International Institutions (1 vol.), Arbitration Rules - National Institutions (2 vol.), Roster of International Arbitrators (1 vol.), International Arbitration Treaties (1 vol.), National Arbitration Laws (3 vol.), International Arbitration and the Courts (1 vol.), and Commercial Arbitration: An International Bibliography Revised & Expanded 2nd Edition (1 vol.).

    The World Arbitration Reporter, Smit, Hans and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 1986-.
    Vol. 1: International Legal Framework; vol. 2 2B: National Legislation; vol. 3-3A: International Arbitral Institutions and Rules; vol. 4-4A: Rules of National Arbitration Institutions, Volume 5: Court Decisions (in preparation for future publication).

    2. Free Web Resources

    Directory of Arbitration Websites and Information on Arbitration Available Online
    Compiled by Rosabel E. Goodman-Everard, this is an extensive listing arranged by treaty and convention, national laws, arbitral institution, and additional resources.

    Electronic Information System for International Law (EISIL)
    A new database of international law created by the American Society of International Law. EISIL links to primary documents, such as treaties and other international instruments. Additional information is provided on each instrument, including print citations and relevant dates. EISIL provides links to recommended research guides that assist researchers in exploring their topics of interest more widely. The database is browseable through a broad framework of subject areas as well as searchable using a targeted search engine. International arbitration resources are currently available under International Economic Law. A searchable database.

    Eye on International Business Law
    Collection of international commercial arbitration and related links from Dr. Klaus Peter Berger, LL.M., Institute for International Business Law, University of Muenster.

    interarb.com
    An information provider in the subject areas of arbitration and dispute resolution with links to the WWW Virtual Library: Arbitration Database; an electronic newsletter - European Arbitration; and the journal, Model Arbitration Law Quarterly Reports.

    Arbitration. The WWW Virtual Library Section on Private Dispute Resolution.
    Links for arbitrators, institutions, commentary, bibliography, journals and statutes.

    International Commercial Arbitration – American Society of International Law (ASIL) Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law
    Comprehensive guide from Charlotte Bynum, Cornell Law Library, covering electronic resources. Part of the ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law (ERG).

    International Commercial Arbitration: Resources in Print and Electronic Format
    An extensive listing of resources from Lyonette Louis-Jacques, Foreign and International Law Librarian and Lecturer in Law, University of Chicago, D'Angelo Law Library.

    La Conciliation, La Médiation Et L'arbitrage
    An extensive annotated guide to arbitration. In French.

    Lex Mercatoria - International Commercial Arbitration
    Includes links for alternative dispute resolution, national arbitration laws, arbitration rules, international conventions, and intellectual property disputes.

    T.M.C. Asser Institute for Private and Public International Law - International Commercial Arbitration
    The T.M.C. Asser Institute was founded by the Dutch universities to promote education and research in the fields of law in which the Institute specializes including international commercial arbitration. The Institute provides links to international commercial arbitration conventions and selected rules.

    III. Treaties and Conventions

    A. International and Regional Treaties and Conventions

    United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards of 1958 (New York Convention)
    330 U.N.T.S. 3, 21 U.S.T. 2517, TIAS 6997 (June 10, 1958)
    See UNCITRAL - Status of Conventions and Model Laws for a list of signatories.

    Claims Settlement Declaration (Iran-United States Claims Tribunal)
    Established the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal. Also known as part of the Algiers Declaration. 75 AJIL 422, 20 ILM 230 (1981)

    General Declaration (Iran-United States Claims Tribunal)
    General Declaration records the central commitments to resolve the crisis in relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United States of America. (January 19, 1981) Also known as part of the Algiers Declaration. 75 AJIL 418, 20 ILM 224 (1981)

    Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States (Washington Convention)
    575 U.N.T.S. 159, 17 U.S. T. 1270, TIAS 6090 (March 18, 1965). Established the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

    Convention Establishing the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
    24 ILM 1605, October 11, 1985

    Inter American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration (Panama Convention)
    Organization of American States, Treaty Series, no. 42. Adopted January 30, 1975, entered into force June 16, 1976.

    Inter American Convention of Extraterritorial Validity of Foreign Judgements and Arbitral Awards (Montevideo Convention)
    Organization of American States, Treaty Series, no. 51. Adopted August 5, 1979, entered into force June 14, 1980.

    Arab Convention on Commercial Arbitration
    Signed April 14, 1987. Entered into force June 25, 1992. Deposited with the Secretary General of the League of Arab States.

    Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
    Adopted July 29, 1899. Replaced by convention of Oct. 18, 1907 as between contracting parties to the later convention.

    Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
    Adopted October 18, 1907.

    European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration
    484 U.N.T.S. 364 (April 21, 1961)

    Agreement relating to application of the European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration
    523 U.N.T.S. 93, CETS No. 042 (Dec. 17, 1962)

    European Convention Providing a Uniform Law on Arbitration
    CETS No. 056, opened to signature January 1, 1966; has not entered into force.

    Convention on the Execution of Foreign Arbitral Awards
    http://www.jurisint.org/pub/01/en/doc/151_1.htm
    92 LNTS 301. Signed September 26, 1927. Entered into force July 25, 1929.

    Geneva Protocol on Arbitration Clauses
    27 LNTS 157. Signed September 24, 1923. Entered into force July 28, 1924.

    Organisation pour l'Harmonisation du Droit des Affaires en Afrique (OHADA)
    Treaty on the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa. Title IV concerns arbitration.
    Provided by Juris International.

    Convention on the Settlement by Arbitration of Civil Law Disputes Resulting from Relations of Economic and Scientific Technical Cooperation (Moscow Convention)
    Signed May 26, 1972.

    United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)
    Signed in Vienna in 1980. The CISG established a comprehensive code of legal rules governing the formation of contracts for the international sale of goods, including remedies for breach of contract.
    1489 UNTS 3, concluded April 10, 1980 and entered into force on January 1, 1988.

    World Trade Organization (WTO)
    The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) came into being in 1948 as a multilateral instrument to promote trade. In 1993, the Uruguay Round of GATT established the World Trade Organization as an international organization. The WTO deals with the rules of trade between nations and supports the multilateral trading system through the WTO agreements.

    B. Bilateral Investment Treaties

    International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
    Bilateral investment treaties (BIT) listed chronologically and by country. Includes list of parties but no treaty texts. Includes bibliography of books, studies and journal articles.

    Investment Agreements in the Western Hemisphere: A Compendium
    Includes texts of 58 bilateral investment treaties signed by countries in the Western Hemisphere.

    US Bilateral Investment Treaties
    Texts of bilateral investment treaties signed by the United States. From the Trade Compliance Center (TCC), International Trade Administration.

    Bilateral Investment Treaties, 1959-1999 (Internet Edition)
    New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2000.
    Published by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), UNCTAD/ITE/IIA/2. A list of bilateral investment treaties signed by the end of 1999.

    C. Treaty Compilations

    KluwerArbitration.com
    Select "Convention" for the important conventions and treaties on arbitration. A subscription service from Kluwer Law International.
     
    The International Arbitration Kit: A Compilation of Basic and Frequently Requested Documents.
    Completely rev. 4th ed. Compiled and edited by Laura Ferris Brown. New York: American Arbitration Association, 1993.
    Includes texts of conventions and treaties.)
     
    International Arbitration Treaties. Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 1998 -. Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration.
     
    Bergsten, Eric E. ed., (Clive M. Schmitthoff, founding ed.) International Commercial Arbitration. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1980
    Binder 1 contains multilateral, regional and international conventions and instruments.

    Juris International - International Legal Instruments
    Select "Arbitration" from International Disputes subject listing.

    The Scoreboard of Adherence to Transnational Arbitration Treaties,
    Institute for Transnational Arbitration
    The Scoreboard reports on the current status of adherence of countries to the primary international arbitration treaties. Published in the quarterly newsletter, News and Notes.

    The World Arbitration Reporter,
    Smit, Hans and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 1986-
    Vol. 1: International Legal Framework.

    WESTLAW
    International Commercial Arbitration Treaties (ICA-TREATIES)

    IV. Arbitral Institutions

    Two types of arbitration exist, ad hoc and institutional. In ad hoc arbitration, parties organize and plan their own arbitration, including the selection of arbitrators, designation of rules and applicable law, and the powers of the arbitrators. All aspects of the arbitration must be specified in the arbitration agreement.

    When parties select institutional arbitration, an arbitral institution provides the rules of procedure for the arbitration and performs supervisory and administrative functions such as keeping the proceedings on a timetable. Parties can select an international institution such as the International Court of Arbitration (ICC) or a national institution such as the American Arbitration Association (AAA) or the London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA).

    Web sites for arbitral institutions generally provide multilingual versions of the institution's rules and regulations, sample model arbitration clauses, relevant national legislation, and panels of experts. Treatises and works in Section II: Major Works and Publications also address the benefits and disadvantages of selecting ad hoc or institutional arbitration.
     
    Born, Gary B. International Arbitration and Forum Selection Agreements - Planning, Drafting and Enforcing. The Hague; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1999.

    Nygh, P. E. Choice of Forum and Law in International Commercial Arbitration. Kluwer Law International, 1997.

    Park, William W. International Forum Selection. Kluwer Law International, 1995.
    An in-depth analysis of the factors and considerations in selecting a forum for arbitration. Documentary appendices include model clauses, arbitration treaties, and translation of national arbitration laws.

    A. Administering Institutions

    1. International Institutions

    The Commercial Arbitration and Mediation Center for the Americas (CAMCA)
    CAMCA is designed to provide commercial parties involved in the free trade area of NAFTA with an international forum for the resolution of private commercial disputes.
     
    European Court of Arbitration
    The European Court of Arbitration is a private institution with its chief seat in Strasbourg and national and local departments throughout Europe.
     
    The Inter-American Commercial Arbitration Commission (IACAC)
    The IACAC established and administers a system for settlement, by arbitration or conciliation, of international commercial disputes in the Western Hemisphere.
     
    International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes
    Pursuant to the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (1966), ICSID provides facilities for the conciliation and arbitration of disputes between sovereign member countries and their official subdivisions and investors who qualify as nationals of other member countries.
     
    International Court of Arbitration, International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
    An international arbitral institution composed of members around the world.
     
    Permanent Court of Arbitration (The Hague)
    The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an international organization providing services for resolving disputes between States, including disputes between States and private parties and those involving intergovernmental organizations. The PCA site contains information about its services, model clauses, and rules. The parties to the 1899 and/or 1907 Conventions for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes comprise the members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration.

    2. National Institutions

    Australia. Australian Centre for International Commercial Arbitration

    Australia. Institute of Arbitrators and Mediators Australia (IAMA)

    Austria. International Arbitral Centre of the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber (Vienna International Arbitral Centre)

    Belgium. Belgian Centre for Arbitration and Mediation (CEPANI)

    Bulgaria. Arbitration Court at the Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry

    Canada. British Columbia International Commercial Arbitration Centre

    Canada. Canadian Commercial Arbitration Centre

    Chile. Santiago Arbitration and Mediation Center

    China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission

    Croatia. Permanent Arbitration Court at the Croatian Chamber of Commerce

    Czech Republic. Arbitration Court Attached to the Economic Chamber of the Czech Republic

    Egypt. Cairo Regional Centre for International Commercial Arbitration (CRCICA)

    Estonian Chamber of Commerce and Industry

    France. Arbitration Chamber of Paris

    France. Centre de Médiation et d'Arbitrage de Paris

    German Institution of Arbitration - Deutsche Institution für Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit

    Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre

    India. Indian Council of Arbitration (ICA)

    Indonesian National Board of Arbitration

    Iran-United States Claims Tribunal

    Italy. Chamber of National and International Arbitration of Milan

    Japan Commercial Arbitration Association

    Korean Commercial Arbitration Board

    Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur Regional Centre for Arbitration

    Mexico - Centro de Arbitraje de México

    Netherlands Arbitration Institute

    Poland. Court of Arbitration at the Polish Chamber of Commerce

    Portugal. Centre for Commercial Arbitration, Lisbon Trade Association, Portuguese Chamber of Commerce

    Romania. Court of International Commercial Arbitration Attached to the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Romania and Bucharest

    Russia. St. Petersburg International Commercial International Arbitration Court

    Singapore International Arbitration Centre

    Southern Africa. Arbitration Foundation of Southern Africa

    Sweden. Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce

    Switzerland. Swiss Chambers’ Arbitration

    Tunisia. Center for Conciliation and Arbitration of Tunis

    United Kingdom. London Court of International Arbitration
    Select text under “Complete International Dispute Resolution” for an introductory brochure, and links to arbitrators, rules, and recommended clauses.

    United Kingdom. Chartered Institute of Arbitrators

    United States. Chicago International Dispute Resolution Association (CIDRA)

    United States. International Centre for Dispute Resolution (ICDR)
    The ICDR is the international division of the American Arbitration Association (AAA) charged with the exclusive administration of the AAA’s international matters.

    3.  Compilations of Arbitral Institutions

    Bergsten, Eric E. ed., (Clive M. Schmitthoff, founding ed.) International Commercial Arbitration. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1980
    Binder 1 contains multilateral, regional and international conventions and instruments.

    Juris International - Dispute Resolution Centres
    Links to institutions arranged by region. Searchable.

    The World Arbitration Reporter. Smit, Hans and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 1986-
    Vol. 3-3A: International Arbitral Institutions and Rules.
    Vol. 4-4A: Rules of National Arbitration Institutions.

    B. Arbitrators

    One of the advantages of arbitration as a dispute resolution mechanism is the ability to consider the qualifications and experience of the arbitrator(s). This is of particular importance when the subject matter involved requires technical or specialized expertise. No comprehensive, inclusive listing of arbitrators exists, and there are no standardized qualifications for arbitrators. The following sources provide some preliminary guidance in identifying arbitrators. Many of the arbitral institutions listed in Section IV.  A. Arbitral Institutions have lists of arbitrators available.

    Dispute Resolution Directory - adr.martindale.com
    Searchable database of professionals specializing in dispute resolution, such as arbitrators, mediators, neutrals, and advocates.
     
    ICC International Centre for Expertise
    Established over 25 years ago, the Centre can propose an expert, appoint an expert or administer the expertise proceedings. The Center’s Rules for Expertise (in force as from January 1, 2003).
     
    IBA Guidelines on Impartiality, Independence and Disclosure in International Commercial Arbitration
    Second draft August 22, 2003 (first draft October 7 and 15, 2002) from the Working Group, International Bar Association.
     
    Roster of International Arbitrators (Guide to International Arbitrators, 3rd Ed). Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Juris Publishing.
    Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration.
     
    WWW Virtual Library: ARBITRATION: Listings: Arbitrators
    Alphabetical listing of arbitrators. Entries are self-appointed and not comprehensive.
     
    Hill, Richard. "Constituting Arbitral Tribunals in Hi-Tech Cases" (May 1995)
    Discusses the pros and cons of the methods used to select arbitrators in hi-tech cases.

    C. Cooperative Agreements between Arbitral Institutions

    British Columbia International Commercial Arbitration Centre
    http://www.bcicac.com/cfm/index.cfm?L=89&P=174

    Inter Association Agreements Concluded Between the American Arbitration
    Association (AAA) and Other ADR Institutions
    http://www.adr.org/index2.1.jsp?JSPssid=15732&JSPsrc=upload\LIVESITE\focusArea\international\inter-association_agreements.html
    Listing of agreements.

    Japan Commercial Arbitration Association
    http://www.jcaa.or.jp/e/arbitration-e/kyoutei-e/ichiran-e.html
    Listing of arbitral institutions with which JCAA concluded agreements.

    The International Arbitration Kit: A Compilation of Basic and Frequently Requested Documents. Completely rev. 4th ed. Compiled and edited by Laura Ferris Brown.  (New York: American Arbitration Association, 1993).
    See pp. 301-385 for text of inter-association agreements concluded between AAA and other arbitral institutions.


    V. ARBITRATION RULES

    Arbitral institutions develop rules of procedure for the conduct of arbitration. In the arbitration agreement, parties may select the rules that will govern the arbitration.

    A. International and Regional Arbitration Rules

    International Dispute Resolution Procedures, American Arbitration Association (AAA)
    http://www.adr.org/index2.1.jsp?JSPssid=15732&JSPsrc=upload\LIVESITE\focusArea\international\AAA175current.htm
    Including mediation and arbitration rules, amended and effective July 1, 2003.

    CAMCA - Commercial Arbitration and Mediation Center for the Americas - Mediation and Arbitration Rules
    http://www.adr.org/index2.1.jsp?JSPssid=15732&JSPsrc=upload\LIVESITE\focusArea\international\camca_rules.html
    Rules effective March 15, 1996. Rules available in English, French and Spanish. Alternate site. http://www.sice.oas.org/DISPUTE/comarb/camca/camtoc_e.asp

    IACAC - Rules of Procedure of the Inter American Arbitration Commission
    http://www.sice.oas.org/DISPUTE/comarb/iacac/rop_e.asp
    As amended and in effect July 1, 1988.

    IBA - Supplementary Rules Governing the Presentation and Reception of Evidence in International Commercial Arbitration.
    http://www.asser.nl/ica/iba.htm
    From the International Bar Association (IBA). Entered into force May 28, 1983.

    IBA Rules on Taking Evidence in International Commercial Arbitration
    http://www.ibanet.org/pdf/rules-of-evid-2.pdf
    Adopted by a resolution of the IBA Council June 1, 1999.

    ICC - International Court of Arbitration
    http://www.iccwbo.org/court/english/arbitration/rules.asp
    Text of rules effective January 1, 1998. Available in English and French.

    Craig, W. Laurence, William W. Park and Jan Paulsson. Craig, Park, & Paulsson's Annotated Guide To The 1998 ICC Arbitration Rules With Commentary.  NY: Oceana Publications; Paris: International Chamber of Commerce, 1998.

    ICC - Pre arbitral Referee Rules http://www.iccwbo.org/court/english/pre_arbitral/all_topics.asp
    Rules established for this procedure allow parties to apply to a "referee" for urgent provisional measures in relation to a dispute. In force January 1, 1990.

    Rules of ICC as Appointing Authority in UNCITRAL or Other Ad Hoc Arbitration Proceedings
    http://www.iccwbo.org/court/english/appointing_authority/all_topics.asp

    ICSID Rules
    http://www.worldbank.org/icsid/basicdoc/basicdoc.htm
    Rules of Procedure for the Institution of Conciliation and Arbitration Proceedings (Institution Rules); Rules of Procedure for Arbitration Proceedings (Arbitration Rules); Rules of Procedure for Conciliation Proceedings (Conciliation Rules). ICSID Additional Facility Rules (http://www.worldbank.org/icsid/facility/facility.htm) authorize the ICSID Secretariat to administer selected types of proceedings between States and foreign nationals that fall outside the scope of the Convention.

    New London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA) Rules
    http://www.lcia-arbitration.com/lcia/arb/
    Select text under Complete International Dispute Resolution for an introductory brochure, and links to arbitrators, rules, and recommended clauses.

    Tribunal Rules of Procedure (Iran-United States Claims Tribunal)
    http://www.iusct.org/tribunal-rules.pdf

    Permanent Court of Arbitration Rules of Procedure (The Hague)
    http://www.pca-cpa.org/ENGLISH/BD/
    Includes Optional Rules for Arbitrating Disputes between Two States (1992); Optional Rules for Arbitrating Disputes between Two Parties of which only one is a State (1993); Optional Rules for Arbitration Involving International Organizations and States (1996); Optional Rules for Arbitration between International Organizations and Private Parties (1996); Optional Conciliation Rules (1996); Optional Rules for Conciliation of Disputes Relating to Natural Resources and the Environment (2001); Optional Rules of Procedure for Fact finding Commissions of Inquiry (1997); and Guidelines for Adapting the Permanent Court of Arbitration Rules to Disputes Arising under Multilateral Agreements and Multiparty Contracts.

    UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (1976)
    http://www.uncitral.org/english/texts/arbitration/arb-rules.htm
    UNCITRAL rules are available for ad hoc administration. The UNCITRAL rules cover many of the same issues as institutional rules but do not provide for the administrative supervision of an arbitral body.

    Procedures for Cases under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules
    http://www.adr.org/index2.1.jsp?JSPssid=15732&JSPsrc=upload\LIVESITE\focusArea\international\AAA112-0900.htm#Article_1
    As amended and effective on September 1, 2000. Provided by the American Arbitration Association (AAA).


    B. National Arbitral Rules

    National arbitral institutions promulgate rules that can be found at the institutional websites and print resources listed in Section IV. A.2. National Institutions. At most institutional sites, rules are available from a link on the homepage.


    C. Arbitration Rules Compilations

    Arbitration Rules - International Institutions. 1999-.
    Arbitration Rules - National Institutions. 1997-.
    Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing
    Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration.

    A Chart Comparing International Arbitration Rules.
    Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 1998.

    KluwerArbitration.com
    http://www.internationalADR.com/arbitration/arb/default.asp
    Select “Rules” for rules from international and regional (national) arbitral institutions. Provides title and year of rules. Selected rules are available free. A subscription service from Kluwer Law International.

    The World Arbitration Reporter, Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 1986-
    Vol. 3-3A: International Arbitral Institutions and Rules; vol. 4-4A: Rules of National Arbitration Institutions.

    WESTLAW – International Commercial Arbitration Rules
    http://directory.westlaw.com/default.asp?GUID=WDIR00000000000000000000091290517&RS=WDIR1.0&VR=1.0
    Listing of arbitration rules from international, regional and national arbitral institutions.


    VI. NATIONAL LAW

    The law of the place where the arbitral tribunal sits (lex loci arbitri) generally determines the procedural law of the arbitration unless the applicable law is specified in the arbitration agreement. As the arbitration agreement is a creature of contract, parties may stipulate the substantive law that will govern the arbitration. National arbitration laws are generally found as part of the code of civil procedure or judicature act, and/or the law exists as an independent arbitration act. Laws included in this section are in English translation, if available, otherwise the laws are in the vernacular.

    A. Country Listing

    UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1985)
    http://www.uncitral.org/english/texts/arbitration/ml-arb.htm
    Designed to assist nation states in revising and modernizing their laws on
    arbitral procedures to take into account the needs and demands of the international arena. Adopted by UNCITRAL on June 21, 1985. The Model Law has been enacted into law in over 40 jurisdictions. http://www.uncitral.org/english/status/status-e.htm

    UNCITRAL Secretariat Explanation of Model Law
    http://faculty.smu.edu/pwinship/arb-24.htm
    Prepared by the secretariat of UNCITRAL for informational purposes only.

    Argentina. Laws relating to arbitration.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#Argentina

    Australia. International Arbitration Act (1974)
    http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/iaa1974276/ 

    Austria. Articles from the Code of Civil Procedure, the Judicature Act, and the Federal Statute on Private International Law.
    http://www.wko.at/arbitration/de/zivilprozeßordnung.htm
    Alternate site. http://www.globalarbitrationmediation.com/austria_arbitration.shtml

    Azerbaijan. Law on International Arbitration, Nov. 18, 1999.
    http://www.lexinfosys.de/document.asp?id=2561

    Bahamas. Arbitration Acts.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#Bahamas
     
    Belarus. International Arbitration Law
    http://www.globalarbitrationmediation.com/belarus_arbitration.shtml

    Belgium. Belgian Judicial Code, Sixth Part: Arbitration.
    http://www.cepani.be/belgian_code.html
     
    Belize. Arbitration Act (Chapter 125)
    http://www.belizelaw.org/lawadmin/index2.html

    Bermuda. Arbitration Act 1986
    http://www.bermudalaws.bm/home.html 

    Bolivia. Law No. 1770 (March 10, 1997)
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/comarb/Bolivia/Larbcom1_s.asp

    Brazil. Law No. 9307 (September 23, 1996)
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/comarb/Brasil/L9307_p.asp

    Bulgaria. Law on International Commercial Arbitration: State Gazette No. 60 (1988) and amended S.G.No. 93 (1993). S.G. No.59 (1998), amended S.G. No. 38 (2001), and amended in SG No. 46 (2002).
    http://www.bcci.bg/arbitration/lawofarbitr.htm

    Canada. Commercial Arbitration Act
    http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/C-34.6/index.html

    China, People’s Republic. Arbitration Law
    http://www.qis.net/chinalaw/prclaw47.htm

    Colombia. Decree No. 1818 (1998).
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/comarb/Colombia/D1818I_s.asp

    Costa Rica. Laws relating to arbitration.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#CostaRica

    Croatia. Arbitration Law, Official Gazette, No. 88/2001
    http://hgk.biznet.hr/hgk/fileovi/180.pdf

    Cyprus. International Commercial Arbitration Law, No. 101 of 1987.
    http://www.neocleous.biz/gr/download/busop_ccica.htm
     
    Ecuador. Laws relating to arbitration.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#Ecuador
    Alternate site. http://www.globalarbitrationmediation.com/ecuador_arbitration_law.shtml

    Egypt
    http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/egypt.l_arbitrage.civile.et.commerciale.loi/doc.html

    England. Arbitration Act 1996
    http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1996/1996023.htm

    For selected web articles on the English Arbitration Act, see: “Recent Trends in International Arbitration with Specific Reference to English Cases” (June 2002)
    http://www.coudert.com/publications/articles/020615_5_trends_cb.pdf
    From Maria Frangeskides of the London Office of Coudert Brothers.

    The Arbitration Act Guide
    http://www.htd.co.uk/uploads/htd/12.publications.pdf
    A guide from the international law firm of HillTaylorDickinson.

    Estonia. Act on the Court of Arbitration of the Estonian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
    http://www.koda.ee/editmodeII/eng/law.html

    France. New Code of Civil Procedure, Arts. 1442-1507
    http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/citoyen/new_code.ow
    Locates Les Codes. Select French, English and Spanish. Next, select [Noveau] Code de procédure civile. Next scroll down to Book Four: Arbitration, Arts. 1442-1507. From Legifrance.
    Alternate site. http://www.arbitrage.org/us/Presentation/Laws_governing_arbitration.htm
    Alternate site (English translation). http://www.iaiparis.com/lois_en.asp

    Germany. The New German Arbitration Law, Tenth Book of the German Code of Civil Procedure (Zivilprozeßordnung; ZPO)
    http://www.dis-arb.de/materialien/schiedsverfahrensrecht98-e.html

    Guatemala. Law relating to arbitration.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#Guatemala 

    Honduras. Laws relating to arbitration.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#Honduras

    Hong Kong. Arbitration Ordinance
    http://www.justice.gov.hk/blis.nsf/curengord?OpenView&Start=341&Count=25&Expand=341.1#341.1

    India. The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 (No.26 of 1996),
    http://www.ficci.com/icanet/law.htm
    Includes a comparative study of the old and new law.
    Alternate site. http://www.globalarbitrationmediation.com/india_arbitration_act.shtml

    Ireland. Arbitration (International Commercial) Act No. 14/1998. http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA14Y1998.html
    Alternate site. http://www.bailii.org/ie/legis/num_act/aca1998358/

    Italy. Title VIII of Book IV of the Italian Code of Civil Procedure.
    http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/italy.arbitration/doc

    Japan. The Law of Arbitration and related laws.
    http://www.jseinc.org/en/laws/

    Jersey. Arbitration Law (1998)
    http://www.jerseylegalinfo.je/Law/LawsInForce/byAlpha/A/default.asp?URL=29-1998.htm

    Korea, South. Arbitration Act, No. 6083 of Dec. 31, 1999
    http://user.chollian.net/%7Emcchang/frame_eng.htm

    Kuwait. Arbitration laws.
    http://www.globalarbitrationmediation.com/kuwait_arbitration.shtml

    Lithuania. Law on Commercial Arbitration
    http://www3.lrs.lt/c-bin/eng/preps2?Condition1=56461&Condition2=arbitration

    Malta. Arbitration Act (Chap. 387)
    http://docs.justice.gov.mt/lom/legislation/english/leg/vol_11/chapt387.pdf

    Mexico. Book Five Title Four of the Commercial Code From the Arbitration Center of Mexico (CAM).
    http://www.camex.com.mx/english/titulocuarto.htm
    Alternate site. http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/comarb/Mexico/codco_s.asp

    Mongolia. Foreign Trade Arbitration Law
    http://www.lexinfosys.de/document.asp?id=419

    Netherlands. Book Four of the Netherlands Code of Civil Procedure - Arbitration
    http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/netherlands.arbitration.act.1986/

    New Zealand. Arbitration Act 1996/99.
    http://www.legislation.govt.nz/browse_vw.asp?content-set=pal_statutes
    Double click next to %A, then scroll down to Arbitration Act 1996, includes 1998 amendment. 

    Panama. Laws relating to arbitration.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#Panama
     
    Paraguay. Laws relating to arbitration.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#Paraguay

    Peru. Laws relating to arbitration.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#Peru

    Portugal. Voluntary Arbitration Law (Law No. 31/86 of August 29, 1986)
    http://www.port-chambers.com/pdf_uk/PortugueseArbitrationAct.pdf

    Russia. Law on International Commercial Arbitration
    http://www.globalarbitrationmediation.com/russian_arbitration.shtml
     
    Scotland. Scottish Arbitration Code.
    http://www.scottish-arbitrators.org/code/ciarbcode.pdf
     
    Singapore. Singapore Arbitration Act 2001.
    http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/singapore.arbitration.act.2001/toc.html

    Spain. Ley 36/1988
    http://www.jurisweb.com/legislacion/procesal/Ley%20Arbitraje.htm

    Sweden. Swedish Arbitration Act of 1999 (SFS 1999:116)
    http://www.chamber.se/arbitration/english/laws/skiljedomslagen_eng.html 

    Switzerland. Chapter 12, Arbitrage international
    http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/rs/291/index.html
    Available in French, German and Italian.

    Alternate site (unofficial English translation). http://www.swissarbitration.ch/IPRG_english.pdf 

    For a discussion of Swiss Arbitration Law, see Blessing, Marc. Introduction to Arbitration – Swiss and International Perspectives
    http://www.baerkarrer.ch/4publications/4_3_10.pdf
    Swiss Commercial Law Series, Vol. 10 (Bär & Karrer, 1999)

    Thailand. Arbitration Act (1987).
    http://sunflower.singnet.com.sg/~arbiter/thaiact.html
    Alternate site. http://www.globalarbitrationmediation.com/thailand_arbitration_act.shtml

    Ukraine. Law on International Commercial Arbitration
    http://www.ucci.org.ua/arb/arb_law.en.html

    United States. Title 9, Arbitration, United States Code.
    http://www.access.gpo.gov/uscode/uscmain.html 
    Alternate site. http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/9/

    United States. Uniform Arbitration Act.
    http://www.nccusl.org/nccusl/DesktopDefault.aspx
    From the Uniform Law Commissioners. Select Arbitration Act from pull-down menu.
    Text of uniform act with links to states that have adopted the act.
    Alternate site. http://www.law.cornell.edu/uniform/vol7.html#arbit

    Uruguay. Laws relating to arbitration.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#Uruguay

    Venezuela. Laws relating to arbitration.
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp#Venezuela

    Zambia. Arbitration Act
    http://interarb.com/vl/Zambia33.htm

    Zimbabwe. Arbitration Act 1999.
    http://www.interarb.com/vl/Zimbabwe.htm
    Alternate site. http://www.globalarbitrationmediation.com/zimbabwe_arbitration_act.shtml

    B. National Law Compilations

    Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) Commercial Arbitration and Other Alternative Dispute Resolution Methods
    http://www.alca-ftaa.org/busfac/canal_e.asp
    Links to the national laws of countries in the Caribbean, Central and South America, the United States and Canada.

    A Guide to Arbitration and ADR in APEC Member Economies
    http://www.arbitration.co.nz/
    The Guide has information on arbitration laws, rules and practice in each of the APEC Member Economies. APEC has 21 members including the USA, Canada, Mexico, Russia, Chile, Peru and many Pacific Rim countries. Arranged by country, information includes an overview (sources of law for dispute resolution, arbitral procedure, and recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards), arbitration, ADR, links and bibliography, institutions for dispute resolution outside of the courts, and treaties.

    Chabaneix & Asociados, Abogados – Revista Iberoamericana de Arbitraje
    http://www.servilex.com.pe/arbitraje/legislacion.html
    Links to national laws from Latin America.

    Schaefer, Jan K. “New Solutions for Interim Measures of Protection in International Commercial Arbitration: English, German and Hong Kong Law Compared”
    http://law.kub.nl/ejcl/22/abs22-2.html
    Electronic Journal of Comparative Law (Vol. 2.2 August 1998)

    KluwerArbitration.com
    http://www.internationalADR.com/arbitration/arb/default.asp
    Select Legislation for model laws and national laws. Researcher permitted to drill down to listing of individual laws under each country heading. Some laws are freely available but most full-text access requires subscription. A subscription service from Kluwer Law International.

    Bergsten, Eric E. ed., (Clive M. Schmitthoff, founding ed.) International Commercial Arbitration. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1980
    Binders 2-6 contain national rules and enactments (in alpha order).

    Paulsson, Jan, Pieter Sanders, and Albert Jan van den Berg (eds.) International Handbook on Commercial Arbitration: National Reports and Basic Legal Texts. Kluwer Law International, 1984-.
    Published in cooperation with the T.M.C. Asser Institute for International Law, The Hague.

    National Arbitration Laws
    Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 1998-
    Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration.

    The World Arbitration Reporter. Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 1986-
    Vol. 2 2B. National Legislation.

    International Handbook on Commercial Arbitration. Pieter Sanders, ed. Deventer, Netherlands; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1984-
    Published under the auspices of ICCA and the T.M.C. Asser Institute. Companion publication to: Yearbook, Commercial arbitration. Includes texts of arbitration laws. Contains national reports and translated texts of national laws.

    Yearbook, Commercial Arbitration. Albert Jan van den Berg, ed. Deventer, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, v. 1 1976
    National Reports, including text of national arbitration laws, were included through vol. XII (1987). Subsequently, national reports are included in the International Handbook on Commercial Arbitration.

    WESTLAW – Arbitration Legislation
    http://directory.westlaw.com/default.asp?GUID=WDIR00000000000000000000091290507&RS=WDIR1.0&VR=1.0
    Listing of databases available from WESTLAW for national arbitration laws.


    VII. DRAFTING ARBITRATION CLAUSES - MODEL CLAUSES

    Clauses providing for arbitration in the case of an international commercial dispute are included in the main contract between the parties. To draft an arbitration clause, it is helpful to look to arbitral institutions as many provide sample clauses in multiple languages. For example, the Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (http://www.sccinstitute.com/uk/Model_Clauses/) provides model clauses in English, French, German, Russian, Spanish, Chinese, Italian and Swedish. Check links to international, regional and national arbitral institutions in Section IV. Arbitral Institutions for additional model clauses not included in this section.

    American Arbitration Association
    http://www.adr.org
    See also Drafting Dispute Resolution Clauses - A Practical Guide.
    http://www.adr.org/index2.1.jsp?JSPssid=15727&JSPsrc=upload\LIVESITE\Rules_Procedures\ADR_Guides\Current%20clausebook.html

    Friedland, Paul. Arbitration Clauses for International Contracts Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 2000.

    The Freshfields Guide to Arbitration and ADR, 2nd rev. ed. Jan Paulsson et al. The Hague; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1999.
    A practical guide for drafting clauses in international contracts.

    KluwerArbitration.com
    http://www.internationalADR.com/arbitration/arb/default.asp
    Select “Model Clauses” for model clauses of international and regional institutions. Researcher permitted to drill down to listing of individual clauses under each region and country heading. Some clauses are freely available, for others full-text access requires subscription. A subscription service from Kluwer Law International.

    Lovells International Arbitration Guide
    http://www2.lovells.com/Arbitration/SilverStream/Pages/pgHome.html
    Lovells, an international law firm, provides guidance in the drafting of international arbitration agreements. The web site employs an arbitration agreement template. Also includes a series of Quick Guides to Arbitration, arbitration tools, and useful links. Registration is required but use of the site is free.

    Permanent Court of Arbitration Model Clauses (Hague)
    http://www.pca-cpa.org/ENGLISH/BD/#Model
    Model clauses correlating to the various rules of the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Available in English, French and Spanish.

    WESTLAW – International Commercial Arbitration Model Clauses
    http://directory.westlaw.com/default.asp?GUID=WDIR00000000000000000000091290514&RS=WDIR1.0&VR=1.0 
    Listing of databases available from WESTLAW for model arbitration clauses from international, regional and national arbitral institutions.


    VIII. DECISIONS and AWARDS

    Pursuant to arbitral conventions, most notably the New York convention, arbitral awards are often easier to enforce than court judgments. Unfortunately for the researcher, most arbitral decisions are not widely published. Due to the confidential nature of the arbitral process, the names of parties, and any identifying features of awards are often omitted in published decisions.

    ASA Bulletin [ASA Bull]
    The Hague; Norwell, MA: Kluwer Law International
    Vol. 20 – 2002-
    Quarterly journal containing articles on arbitration matters, arbitral awards, and court.
    Continues: Bulletin, Vol. 1-19 (1983-2001).

    Case Laws on UNCITRAL Texts (CLOUT)
    http://www.uncitral.org/english/clout/index.htm
    Select abstracts. CLOUT abstracts include Model Arbitration Law (MAL) cases.

    Index to CLOUT case abstracts that relate to Model Arbitration Law (MAL) http://www.interarb.com/vl/clout/
    Arranged by MAL article. Compiled by M.J. Chapman, 1999, updated October 2003.

    Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards (1974 1985). Compiled by Sigvard Jarvin, Yves Derains. Paris; New York: ICC Pub.; Deventer; Boston: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1990. (ICC Pub. 433)

    Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards Vol. II (1986 1990). Commented and indexed by Sigvard Jarvin, Yves Derains and Jean-Jacques Arnaldez. Paris; New York: ICC Pub.; Deventer; Boston: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1994. (ICC Pub. 514)

    Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards Vol. III (1991 1995). Commented and indexed by Jean-Jacques Arnaldez, Yves Derains and Dominique Hascher. Paris; New York: ICC Pub.; The Hague; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1997. (ICC Pub. 553)

    Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards Vol. IV (1996-2000). Commented and indexed by Jean-Jacques Arnaldez, Yves Derains and Dominique Hascher. New York: ICC, 2003. (ICC Pub. 647)

    Digest of CAS Awards. Matthieu Reeb, ed. Berne: Stæmpfli, 1998.
    Volume I (1986-1998)

    Digest of CAS Awards. Matthieu Reeb, ed. The Hague; New York: Kluwer Law International, 2002.
    Volume II (1998-2000)
    A compilation of the major decisions in English and French issued by the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).

    ICSID Cases
    http://www.worldbank.org/icsid/cases/cases.htm
    Lists concluded and pending ICSID cases with selected online decisions and awards.

    ICSID Reports: Reports of Cases Decided under the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States, 1965
    Cambridge, England: Grotius Publications
    Vol. 1- 1972-.

    International Law Reports. Lauterpacht & Greenwood, eds.
    Cambridge, England: Grotius Publications, 1950-.
    Includes decisions of international courts and arbitral awards rendered in cases between states that involve application of public international law.

    Iran-U.S. Tribunal Reports [Iran-U.S. C.T.R.]
    Iran-United States Claims Tribunal
    Cambridge: Grotius Publications, 1983-.
    These reports are also available on WESTLAW (INT-IRAN database).

    Cross Reference Iran-U.S. Claims Tribunal Reports Awards and Decisions
    http://www.iusct.org/iusctr-cross-reference.pdf
    Alphabetical arrangement of Tribunal decisions cross-referenced with Iran-U.S. C.T. R. cites.

    Iran-United States Claims Tribunal
    Lists of Awards and Decisions
    http://www.iusct.org/lists-eng.html

    Recent Iran-United States Claims Tribunal Awards and Decisions in Intergovernmental Cases
    http://www.iusct.org/awards-eng.html

    Journal de Droit International (Clunet)
    Paris, Librarie générale de droit et de jurisprudence, v. 1- 1874-.
    Regularly includes arbitral awards.

    Lloyd's Arbitration Reports
    London: Lloyd's of London Press Ltd., 1988-.
    Resource for international arbitration court decisions and awards.

    Mealey’s International Arbitration Report.
    LexisNexis, 1986-
    Monthly publication containing commentary and notes about recent cases with selected texts of arbitration awards and judicial decisions. Available on Westlaw (MINTARBR)
    and LEXIS (ADR/MEAIAR).

    NAFTA. Binational Panel Decisions and Arbitral Panel Reports under the North American Free Trade Agreement
    http://www.sice.oas.org/DISPUTE/nafdispe.asp
    Decisions and reports under Chapter 19 and 20 of NAFTA.

    Reports of International Arbitral Awards. United Nations, Vol. 1 (1948) -.
    Awards are printed in English or French.

    Transnational Law Database (TLDB)
    http://www.tldb.de/
    A database focusing on transnational commercial law – lex mercatoria. The database is an arrangement of lex mercatoria principles that includes descriptions and links to arbitral awards and decisions, black letter text, domestic statutes, international conventions, standard contract forms, trade practices and usages.

    UNILEX on CISG and UNIDROIT Principles – International Caselaw and Bibliography
    http://www.unilex.info/ 
    UNILEX provides access to the decisions and arbitral awards by date, country or arbitral tribunal, article number of the CISG or the UNIDROIT Principles, and specific issues listed under each article. Find texts of the CISG, UNIDROIT Principles and a bibliography.

    WESTLAW – International Commercial Arbitration Decisions and Awards
    http://directory.westlaw.com/default.asp?GUID=WDIR00000000000000000000091290506&RS=WDIR1.0&VR=1.0
    Listing of arbitral institutions generating caselaw and arbitral awards.

    The World Arbitration Reporter. Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing,
    Volume 5: Court Decisions (in preparation for future publication).

    World Trade and Arbitration Materials. [W.T.A.M.]
    Geneva, Switzerland: Werner Pub. Co.,
    Vol. 6- 1994-.
    Includes selected arbitral awards.

    WTO Dispute Rulings http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/distabase_wto_members1_e.htm
    include panel reports, appellate body reports, and adopted panel reports within the framework of WTO. Adopted Panel Reports within the Framework of GATT 1947, (http://www.sice.oas.org/DISPUTE/gatdispe.asp) include reports from 1948-1994.
    Selected GATT and WTO Panel decisions from September 1948 forward available in LEXIS (INTLAW / GTTWTO).
    WTO panel decisions from 1995- and GATT panel decisions 1948-1994 available in WESTLAW (WTO-DEC).

    Yearbook, Commercial Arbitration. Albert Jan van den Berg, ed. Deventer, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, Vol. 1 1976-.
    Broad coverage of international commercial arbitration topics including arbitral awards, rules, recent developments, court decisions on the New York Convention, and recent articles.


    IX. SPECIALIZED ARBITRATION

    A. Intellectual Property

    The World Intellectual Property Organization Arbitration and Mediation Center
    http://www.arbiter.wipo.int/center/index.html
    The WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center, established in 1994, is part of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in Geneva, Switzerland. The Center offers “arbitration and mediation services for the resolution of commercial disputes between private parties involving intellectual property.” Select “Arbitration” link for text of WIPO arbitration rules, expedited arbitration rules, and sample contract clauses. Guides to arbitration (http://www.arbiter.wipo.int/center/publications/index.html) are also available.

    B. Maritime

    Society of Maritime Arbitrators, Inc. (SMA)
    http://www.smany.org/
    A professional, nonprofit organization established to educate the public and members of the maritime industry about alternative dispute resolution in the maritime industry. Find salvage rules, SMA arbitration rules, SMA arbitration procedures, and other resources.

    C. Sports

    Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS)
    http://www.tas-cas.org/default.htm
    Created in 1983, the CAS is an independent institution to facilitate the settlement of disputes in the sports world. CAS is under the administrative and financial authority of the International Council of Arbitration for Sport. Find CAS rules, caselaw and code. A Guide to Arbitration (http://www.tas-cas.org/en/pdf/guide/pdf) and a Guide to Mediation (http://www.tas-cas.org/en/pdf/guidemediation.pdf) are also available. See Section VIII. Decisions and Awards for the Digest of CAS Awards.


    X. LOCATING LITERATURE AND RESOURCES

    A. Online Library Catalogs

    Numerous titles dealing with all aspects of international commercial arbitration are available in law libraries and information centers throughout the world. A law library's online catalog is a valuable gateway to these resources. The online library catalog is an excellent way to identify books, periodicals, conference proceedings and documents written by leading practitioners and scholars. Organizations, government agencies and private publishers are producers of international commercial arbitration resources. Many publications are available that address commercial arbitration in particular countries and regions. These publications can be identified with an online library catalog using a variety of access points, including title, keyword, author, series or subject.

    Selected Web-based Catalogs:

    Library of Congress Online Catalog
    http://catalog.loc.gov/

    LibDex
    http://www.libdex.com/country.html 
    Excellent geographic arrangement of web based library catalogs from around the world. Libraries arranged alphabetically by type of library including academic, consortia, law, public and special.

    Suggestions for online library catalog searches

    Title search: most systems require exact title. If title searching retrieves "No Records" always try a keyword search.

    Keyword search: most flexible approach; combine terms to search for keywords in the title, author, subject or other field. Many web-based online catalogs enable the researcher to select the field they wish to search. Numerous treatises and texts are available on international commercial arbitration, some focusing on arbitration within a particular country, or arbitration through a particular arbitral institution. A great advantage of web-based catalogs is the ability to build a search query. Many catalogs have a guided or directed keyword searching, which provides a template for filling in keywords. Web-based catalogs also enable the researcher to link to other related entries in the library’s collection.

    Author search: names of individuals or names of organizations. Examples of organizations or institutions as authors:
    American Arbitration Association
    International Council for Commercial Arbitration
    International Chamber of Commerce. Court of Arbitration
    Permanent Court of Arbitration

    Subject search: requires use of exact Library of Congress Subject Headings. These subject headings can also be subdivided geographically as indicated below.
    Some suggested headings include:
    Arbitration and award, International
    Arbitration and award, International Cases
    Arbitration and award Pacific Area
    Conflict of laws Arbitration and award
    Arbitration, International
    Arbitration and award Latin America
    Arbitration and award, International Periodicals
    Dispute resolution (Law) International aspects

    Remember that terminology differs in the international and foreign law arena. For example, American English and British English will have spelling variations resulting in different search results. Examples: center/centre or organization/organisation.

    B. Journals/Periodicals/Newsletters

    1. Search and Identification
    Periodical indexes provide the means, through multiple formats, of identifying the important legal literature available in journals, law reviews, and legal newspapers. Many excellent articles on international commercial arbitration are written for law reviews and journals. Law reviews and journals are particularly timely research tools for "hot topics" and recent developments. Use the periodical indexes and services listed below to identify relevant articles.

    a. Subscription Services

    Thomson Gale (http://www.galegroup.com/tlist/sb5088.html) indexes over 850 law reviews, newspapers, and bar association journals from the United States and other common law jurisdictions in its publication, LegalTrac. LegalTrac is available as a subscription web product including selected full-text articles. The CD-ROM product, LegalTrac, is a stand-alone terminal. The online product, Legal Resources Index is available on Westlaw (LRI) and on LEXIS (LAWREV / LGLIND). The print version is called Current Law Index. Each title included is selected based on criteria provided by the Advisory Committee on the Indexing of Periodical Literature, a special advisory committee of the American Association of Law Libraries. Coverage begins in 1980.

    Index to Legal Periodicals & Books (ILP) (http://www.hwwilson.com/Databases/legal.cfm) indexes over 850 legal journals from the United States and other common law jurisdictions. ILP is available on CD-ROM, as a web product, and online in WESTLAW (ILP) and LEXIS (LAWREV / ILP). Electronic coverage began in 1981; print coverage dates back to 1908.

    Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals (IFLP) (http://www.law.berkeley.edu/library/iflp/) is a multilingual, multinational index of nearly 520 journals focusing on international law (public and private), comparative law, and the municipal law of countries other than common law jurisdictions. IFLP is available in print, on CD-ROM, as a web product, and on WESTLAW (IFLP).

    b. Selected Free Web-based Finding Tools

    Ingenta (http://www.ingenta.com/) Search for articles from over 28,000 multidisciplinary journals since Fall 1988. Provides a fax document delivery service for a fee. Indexes many international and American legal periodicals including Arbitration International; Journal of International Arbitration; Arbitration: the Journal of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators; World Trade and Arbitration Materials.

    University Law Review Project
    http://www.lawreview.org/
    Provides full-text search of law journals available on the web.

    2. Specialized Journals

    Articles on international commercial arbitration can be found in many law review and journals. The following titles highlight several of the journals dedicated to international arbitration issues. Journal abbreviations are available in brackets [ ].

    Arbitration & the Law: AAA General Counsel's Annual Report. American Arbitration Association. Office of the General Counsel. Office of the General Counsel, American Arbitration Association, 1982
    An annual publication covering recent developments in arbitration, including international arbitration.

    American Review of International Arbitration [Am Rev Int'l. Arb]
    Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, Inc.
    Vol. 1- 1990-
    A Publication of the Center for International Arbitration and Litigation Law, Columbia University. Also available on Westlaw (AMRIARB) and Lexis (LAWREV / AMRIA).

    Arbitration International [Arb.Int'l.]
    The Journal of LCIA Arbitration International. Kluwer Law International.
    Vol. 1- 1985-

    Arbitration Journal. [Arb.J.]
    American Arbitration Association, [1937 1993]
    Continued by:
    Dispute Resolution Journal [Dis.Res.J.]
    The Association, 1993
    Also available on Westlaw (DRJ) and Lexis (ADR / DRJNL).

    ASA Bulletin [ASA Bull]
    The Hague; Norwell, MA: Kluwer Law International
    Vol. 20 – 2002-
    Quarterly journal containing articles on arbitration matters, arbitral awards, and court.
    Continues: Bulletin, Vol. 1-19 (1983-2001).

    European Arbitration [Eur.Arb.]
    http://www.interarb.com/ea/index.htm
    EA is an electronic newsletter providing information on current happenings in the arbitration field. Searchable.

    ICC International Court of Arbitration Bulletin. [ICC Int'l. Ct.Arb.Bull.]
    ICC International Court of Arbitration.
    Vol. 1 - 1990
    Extracts of ICC arbitral awards, ICC Commission on International Arbitration Reports, and articles on international arbitration.

    Mealey’s International Arbitration Report. [Int'l. Arb.Rep.]
    LexisNexis, 1986-
    Monthly publication containing commentary and notes about recent cases with selected texts of arbitration awards and judicial decisions. Available on Westlaw (MINTARBR)
    and in LEXIS (ADR/MEAIAR).

    International Arbitration Law Review [Int'l. Arb.L.Rev.]
    Sweet & Maxwell
    Vol. 1- 1997-
    Also available on Westlaw (INTALR).

    Journal of International Arbitration. [J. Int'l. Arb.]
    Kluwer Law International.
    Vol. 1- 1984-
    New developments, case notes, and regional overviews in international arbitration.

    Model Arbitration Law Quarterly Reports
    London, Simmonds & Hill
    Vol. 1-4, 1995-1999
    http://www.interarb.com/vl/malqr/
    Search the table of contents online.

    News & Notes
    Institute for Transnational Arbitration (ITA), Center for American and International Law
    Plano, TX
    1986-.
    A quarterly publication of the ITA. The current issue (http://www.cailaw.org/ita/publications.html) is available on the web.

    Revue de l'arbitrage [Rev.arb]
    French Commission on Arbitration.
    Vol. 1- 1955-.
    Published quarterly in French with English summaries since 1998.
    Articles on national, international and comparative arbitration law, French, foreign and international court decisions or arbitration awards, commentary, bibliographic reports, and reports of colloquia.

    Stockholm Arbitration Report
    Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing
    Vol. 1- 1999-.
    Includes articles on topical issues in international arbitration and extracts from arbitral awards and court decisions. Published twice a year on behalf of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (SCC) Institute.

    Vindobona Journal of International Commercial Law & Arbitration [VJ]
    http://www.maa.net/vindobonajournal/default.htm
    Published under the auspices of the Moot Alumni Association (MAA). Also available on Westlaw (VINJILCA).

    Yearbook of the Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce
    Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing.
    1994 -1997.
    Arbitration articles covering Swedish and international arbitration issues. Continued by
    Stockholm Arbitration Report.

    Willamette Journal of International Law and Dispute Resolution
    Salem, OR: Willamette University, College of Law,
    Vol. 5 - 1997-.
    Also available on Westlaw (WMTJILDR).

    World Arbitration and Mediation Report. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, Inc.
    Vol. 1- 1990-.
    Monthly newsletter. Contains news, judicial decisions, articles, and bibliographic resources on dispute resolution in the US and around the world. Also available on Westlaw (WAMREP).

    World Trade and Arbitration Materials. [W.T.A.M.]
    Geneva, Switzerland: Werner Pub. Co.,
    Vol. 6- 1994-.
    Contains the texts of important current documents relating to international trade and arbitration. Includes selected arbitral awards, conventions, court decisions, and rules.

    3. Selected Free Web-Based Articles
    Many articles and publications are freely available via the web. Using Internet search engines such as Google (http://www.google.com) and AltaVista (http://www.altavista.com) enable researchers to locate additional useful materials. Law firms and associations often publish newsletters and other publications that are available on their web sites. Faculty web pages or academic forums may have full-text articles online.

    International Litigation & Arbitration Alert (IL&A Alert)
    http://www.bakerinfo.com/BakerNet/Resources/Law+Alerts/InternationalLitigationandArbitrationAlert.htm
    A bimonthly publication providing a summary of recent decisions and other points of interest in the area of international litigation and arbitration. A Baker & McKenzie newsletter distributed by the North American Litigation Practice Group.

    Drahozal, Christopher R. "Commercial Norms, Commercial Codes, and International Commercial Arbitration" Vol. 33 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (January 2000).
    http://law.vanderbilt.edu/journal/33-01/33-1-3.html 

    InterArbitration.net
    http://www.interarbitration.net/index.asp
    An online database including links to articles, news, arbitral institutions, arbitral rules and practice materials. Registration required but use of the site is free. Provided by the international law firm of Mayer, Brown, Rowe and Maw.

    King and Spalding, LLP
    http://www.kslaw.com/library/articles_search.asp
    Select International Arbitration from pull-down menu. A sampling of articles include:
    - A Practical Guide for Drafting International Arbitration Clauses
    - Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards
    - Practical Guidelines for Interviewing, Selecting and Challenging Party- Appointed Arbitrators in International Commercial Arbitrations

    Polkinghorne, Michael and James Cockayne. “Then Woe to Him . . . Good Faith Negotiation Prior to the Institution of International Arbitration Proceedings” (2002)
    http://www.coudert.com/publications/articles/020924_5_faith_cb.pdf

    C. Bibliographies

    Bilateral Investment Treaties: Bibliography, International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, World Bank Group
    http://www.worldbank.org/icsid/pubs/treatbibl/main.htm

    Commercial Arbitration: An International Bibliography Revised & Expanded 2nd Edition.
    Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Huntington, NY: Juris Publishing, 1999-
    Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration.

    KluwerArbitration.com
    http://www.internationalADR.com/arbitration/arb/default.asp
    Select Commentary for a listing of chapters and articles from some of the leading treatises and journals. A subscription service from Kluwer Law International.

    Consolidated Bibliography of Recent Writings Related to the Work of UNCITRAL – 1993 to 2003.
    http://www.uncitral.org/english/bibliography/consolidated-bibliography.htm
    Scroll down to Section III: International Commercial Arbitration and Conciliation for entries listed in alpha author order.


    D. Lexis and Westlaw

    The subscription databases of Lexis and Westlaw contain a wide selection of international arbitration resources. Several of these resources have been included in various parts of this research guide. Use the directories below to find the complete, current selection of resources available through these online services.

    Lexis: Searchable Directory of Online Sources
    http://web.nexis.com/sources/
    Identifies libraries and files and provides source information including coverage, frequency of updates, data format and description of files.

    Westlaw: Database Directory
    http://directory.westlaw.com/
    Drill down menu to identify databases. Selecting the green information button for databases provides information on coverage, contents of database, sources, and tips for searching and use of fields. Find international commercial arbitration databases by selecting Westlaw International – International Practice Areas – International Commercial Arbitration.


    X. Associations

    The Annual Willem C. Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot
    http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu./vis.html
    The Willem C. Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot is a competition for law students, with eligibility for students from all countries. The Moot involves a dispute arising out of a contract of sale between two countries that are party to the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. The site includes texts of moot court problems and information on the moot.

    International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA)
    http://www.arbitration-icca.org/
    A nongovernmental organization established in 1969 to promote the use of commercial arbitration in international trade disputes. The ICCA publishes the ICCA congress series that focus on different issues in commercial arbitration. The first congress was published in 1983; the eleventh congress was published in 2003. To locate series’ titles, select an online catalog from Section X.A. Online Library Catalogs and search for “ICCA congress” as a series search.

    Center for Public Resources (CPR) Institute for Dispute Resolution
    http://www.cpradr.org/
    Includes section on international alternative dispute resolution, listing of neutrals, procedures and clauses.

    The Institute for Transnational Arbitration (ITA)
    http://www.cailaw.org/ita/
    A division of the Center for American and International Law, the ITA focuses on educating professionals about arbitration as a means of resolving transnational business disputes. The Publications section includes the quarterly issue of ITA's newsletter News & Notes, and a Scoreboard of Adherence to Transnational Arbitration Treaties in chart form.