Features - German Business and Commercial Laws: Guide to Translations into English and Select Auxiliary Sources

Martina Kammer received a master's degree in interpreting and translating (Diplom-Dolmetscher/Übersetzer) from the University of Leipzig, Germany, in 1976 and a master's degree in library and information science (MLIS) from the Palmer School of Library and Information Science of Long Island University in 1998. She has worked as a professional translator for over 20 years. She is currently working for the New York office of a German corporate law firm.


Table of Contents

Introduction
Translations
Compilations of Business and Commercial Laws
General Private and Commercial Law
Civil Code/Code of Civil Procedure
Commercial Code
Industrial and Intellectual Property Law
Insolvency Law
Business Organization
Company Law
Corporate Tax Law
Labor Law
Takeover Code
Business Regulation
Accounting Law
Antitrust Law
Banking Law/Financial Markets/Negotiable Instruments
Insurance Law
Environmental Law
Foreign Trade Law
Other (Including Industry-Specific Laws)
Business and Commercial Law Guides/Handbooks
General Business Law Guides
General Private and Commercial Law
Agency Law
Industrial and Intellectual Property Law
Real Property Law/Business Tenancies
Business Organization
Corporate Taxation
Labor Law
Mergers and Acquisitions
Business Regulation
Antitrust/Competition Law
Banking Law
Foreign Trade Law
General Business Information Sources
General Information Sources About Doing Business in Germany
Company Directories
Online Attorney Directories
Comprehensive Business and Legal Websites
Legal and Business Dictionaries
Dictionaries in Print Format
Online Dictionaries and Translation Aids
German Business and Commercial Laws in the Vernacular - Major WWW Sites
List of Publishers
Alphabetical Index of Laws Available in Translation
English-German
German-English

Introduction

This Web page is designed as a finding aid for people involved in international legal and business transactions, students, translators and anyone else who might be interested in locating English translations of German business and commercial laws. Included are translations in print format and those available on the World Wide Web without, however, making a claim to completeness. In addition, this page points to related sources in English providing background information on the economic and legal environment for doing business in Germany, as well as to a number of useful tools, such as dictionaries of business and legal terms, both in print and online, or a list of Web addresses for major publishers of foreign business and legal materials in both Germany and the United States. Also included for reference purposes is a selection of links to major legal Web sites in the German vernacular. Brief source descriptions have been provided wherever the author has had a chance to look at the materials. Currency has been a major priority, but not so recent sources have at times been included for reference purposes. When using, or referring to, legal material from the World Wide Web, it needs to be borne in mind that these sources may be out of date, incomplete, or, in the worst of cases, incorrect. Hence it stands to reason to check their origin and currency.

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Translations

Compilations of Business and Commercial Laws

Rüster, B. (ed.). Business Transactions in Germany (FRG). New York, NY: Matthew Bender; München: C.H. Beck Verlag, current as per May 1999. (Loose-leaf).
Five-volume set in English providing extensive and in-depth coverage of the various aspects of business dealings and business law in Germany, with a separate volume of translations of pertinent laws and code sections (Commercial Code, Act Against Restraints of Competition, Act Against Unfair Competition, Banking Act, Act on Limited Liability Companies, Stock Corporation Act, Standard Contracts Act, Patent Act, Copyright Act, Trademark Act, and others).
F. Enderlein. Commercial, Business and Trade Laws of Unified Germany. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana, 1991- (looseleaf).
Commercial Laws of Europe. London: European Law Centre, 1978- (looseleaf).
Provides the texts of legislation in English, and also in the original language when the authentic English text is unavailable.
Commercial Laws of the World: West Germany. Ormond Beach, Fla.: Foreign Tax Law Publisher, Inc., 1995- (looseleaf).
The section on Germany in Book 24 of this multi-volume set contains English translations of major German commercial laws. It features an extensive table of contents, but lacks an index or introduction.

General Private and Commercial Law

Civil Code/Code of Civil Procedure

The Code of Civil Procedure Rules of the Federal Republic of Germany of January 30, 1877 and The Introductory Act for the Code of Civil Procedure Rules of January 30, 1877. As of January 1988. Translated by Simon L. Goren. Littleton, Co: Fred B. Rothman & Co., 1990.
The English text of the two laws with a glossary of terms in German/English. 
The German Civil Code. Littleton, Colo.: Fred B. Rothman & Co., 1994.
Translation of the German Civil Code (BGB) as amended to January 1, 1992, and of the Introductory Act to the Civil Code (EGBGB) of August 15, 1896 (including amendments to January 1, 1992), with an introduction in English and a German-English/English-German index.

Commercial Code

Peltzer, M./Doyle, J., Voight, E.A. German Commercial Code / Handelsgesetzbuch. 4th revised edition. Köln: Dr. Otto Schmidt Verlag, 2000.
German-English text with an introduction in English. The revised edition takes into account the considerable changes in the law during the past few years. The introduction provides a useful summary and overview of the Code and includes pointers to the most relevant or problematic sections.

Industrial and Intellectual Property Law

German Industrial Property, Copyright and Antitrust Laws: Legal Texts. 2nd revised edition. Weinheim; Basel (Switzerland); Cambridge; New York, NY: VCH, 1989.
English translations of the main statutes in these three fields of law with a brief introduction to, and select bibliography of German and English sources in, each of these fields.
Beier, F./Schricker, G./Fikentscher, W. German Industrial Property, Copyright and Antitrust Laws. Weinheim, FRG; New York, NY: VCH, 1996. 
Text of the laws in English with an introduction: Patent Act, Utility Model Act, Trademark Act, Act Against Unfair Competition, EEC Treaty (Art. 85, 86), Copyright Act and Publishing Act. 
Aufenanger, Martin. Markengesetz - The German Trade Mark Act of 1995. Weinheim; New York: VCH, 1994.
The German and English texts of the German Trade Mark Act of 1995 with an introduction and glossary of terms.
Rüster, B. (ed.). Business Transactions in Germany (FRG). New York, NY: Matthew Bender; München: C.H. Beck Verlag, current as per May 1999. (Loose-leaf). 
Many of the laws mentioned under this section are also available in volume 5 of this source.

Insolvency Law

Peltzer, M. German Insolvency Laws / Konkurs- und Vergleichsrecht. Köln: Dr. Otto Schmidt Verlag, 1975.
German-English synoptic text of the Bankruptcy Act, the Court Composition Act and the Act on Contestation with an introduction in English. 
Stewart, C. Insolvency Code and Act Introducing the Insolvency Code / Insolvenzordnung mit Einführungsgesetz zur Insolvenzordnung. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1997.
German-English text of the law with an introduction in English.

Business Organization

Company Law

Peltzer, M./Brooks, J.P/Hopcroft, T. German Law Pertaining to Companies with Limited Liability / GmbHG - GmbH-Gesetz. 3rd revised edition. Köln: Dr. Otto Schmidt Verlag, 1996.
Synoptic German-English text of the law with an English introduction to German GmbH law. 
Meister, B./Heidenhain, M. The German Limited Liability Company. 6th edition. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1997.
Introduction to the German Limited Liability Company Act, with a synoptic German-English translation of the law, and related legal provisions regarding the articles of association and other documents establishing the company, the structuring of the balance sheet, profit/loss accounting of a company, and the commercial register extract.
Peltzer/Hickinbotham, A. German Stock Corporation Act and Co-Determination Act. Aktiengeset z und Mitbestimmungsgesetz. Köln: Otto Schmidt, 1999.
German-English Texts of the German Stock Corporation Act, the Co-Determination Act, and the Labour Management Relations Act, with an extensive introduction in English and a German-English/English-German index.
Schneider, H./Heidenhain, M. The German Stock Corporation Act. The Hague: Kluwer Law International/München: C.H. Beck, 1996.
Stock corporation law in English with an extensive introduction.
Benkert, M./Bürkle, A. Law of Reorganizations/Reorganization Tax Laws. Umwandlungsgesetz/ Umwandlungssteuergesetz. Bilingual edition with comprehensive introduction. Köln: RWS Verlag Kommunikationsforum GmbH, 1996.
Synoptic translation of the German laws. German/English - English/German glossary of terms.
Oliver, M.C. The Private Company in Germany. A Translation and Commentary. Series on International Comparative Law. Deventer; Antwerp: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1986.
Commentary on and introduction to German company law; synoptic German-English text (British English!) of the Private Companies Act of 1980; German-English glossary of terms.
Gres, J./Gerber, D.J. The German Law Governing Standard Business Conditions / AGBG - Gesetz zur Regelung des Rechts der Allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungen. Köln: Dr. Otto Schmidt Verlag, 1977.
German-English text of the above law, with a short introduction.

Corporate Tax Law

Bellstedt, Christoph. International Transactions Tax Act and Administrative Principles on Income Allocation: English-German Text. Köln: Otto Schmidt Verlag, 1983.
Synoptic texts in German and English of the 1972 International Transactions Tax Act as amended and the German Finance Ministry's Administrative Principles on Income Allocation with a list of abbreviations and an index in both German and English.
Tulloch, A. German Reorganization Tax Act / Umwandlungssteuergesetz. Köln: Dr. Otto Schmidt
Verlag, 1995.
German-English synoptic text, with an introduction in German and English. The footnotes reproduce the German text and English translation of the numerous legal provisions to which the Reorganization Tax Act refers. The keyword index also serves as a bilingual glossary of terms.
Meyer-Landrut, J./Miller, F.G./Thoma, G.F. The German Turnover Tax Law 1980/Umsatzsteuergesetz 1980. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1980.
Synoptic German-English text with an introduction in English.
Benkert, M./Bürkle, A. Law of Reorganizations/Reorganization Tax Laws. Umwandlungsgesetz/ Umwandlungssteuergesetz. Bilingual edition with comprehensive introduction. Köln: RWS Verlag Kommunikationsforum GmbH, 1996.
Synoptic translation of the German laws. German/English - English/German glossary of terms.
Peltzer, M./Hickinbotham, A.G. Transformation Act and Transformation Taxation Act / Umwandlungsgesetz mit Umwandlungssteuergesetz. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1996.
A German-English synoptic text of the law with commentaries in English.
Tax Laws of the World. Germany. Ormond Beach, FL: Foreign Tax Law Publishers, 1993-. (Loose-leaf).
The volume on Germany provides a compilation of German tax legislation in translation, including the Corporation Tax Law, the Income Tax Law and the Foreign Taxation Act. It features an introduction to the German tax system and an extensive index.
U.S.-German Tax Treaties/Doppelbesteuerungsabkommen USA-Deutschland. 
Available in English (Income and Capital / Estate and Gift Tax) and German (Einkommen und Vermögen) from the website of German attorney Reimar Pinkernell. Both the German and English versions feature a clickable table of contents.

Labor Law

Schneider, H./Kingsman, D. Act Concerning Co-Determination of Employees. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1976.
Bilingual text, including the Labor Management Relations Act and (partly) the Stock Corporation Law.
Peltzer/Hickinbotham, A., German Stock Corporation Act and Co-Determination Act. Aktiengeset z und Mitbestimmungsgesetz. Köln: Otto Schmidt, 1999.
German-English Text with an Introduction in English.
Tepass, M./Parssinen D. German Labor Law. Introduction and Collection of German Labor Law Statutes. New York: German American Chamber of Commerce, Inc., 1997.
An introduction to German labor law plus translations of the most important German labor law statutes and codifications, including excerpts from the Civil Code, the Commercial Code, the Social Security Code, and the Employment Promotion Act, the Persons with Disabilities Act, the Protection from Dismissal Act, and others.
Weber, U./Wrede, B. German Labour Law. An Investor's Guide to German Labour Law. Köln: PfA Praktikerforum für Arbeits- und Wirtschaftsrecht GmbH, 1996.
Coverage of the pertinent legal provisions, as well as examples of cases. Selection of sample contracts and other documents and a list of the official laws with an English translation in Part VIII.
Peltzer, M. Co-determination Act 1976 / MitbestG - Mitbestimmungsgesetz. 2nd edition. Köln: Dr. Otto Schmidt Verlag, 1976.
German-English text of the law, with an introduction in English.
Peltzer, M./Stewart, C. Labor-Management Relations Act / Betriebsverfassungsgesetz. 4th revised edition. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1995.
A synoptic German-English text with commentary in English.

Takeover of Companies

Zschocke, C./Schuster, S. Takeover Code /Übernahmekodex. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1996.
German-English text edition of the new Takeover Code for the German capital market with an introduction and extensive explanations.
Takeover Code/Übernahmekodex.
English/German text of the German Takeover Code since 01/01/1998 from the Web site of the German Takeover Commission.

Business Regulation

Accounting Law

Brooks, J.P./Mertin, D. German Accounting Legislation/Deutsches Bilanzrecht. 3rd edition. Düsseldorf: IDW Verlag GmbH, 1996.
Part 1: German accounting principles explained in a synoptic German/English text, and compared with US GAAP.  Part 2:Translations of the relevant legal provisions (Commercial Code, Stock Corporation Law, Limited Liability Companies Law).

Antitrust Law

German Act against Restraints of Competition/Gesetz gegen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen.
Available from the official website of the Federal Cartel Office (German/English). Also available from Information Leaflet on Merger Control (German/English) and Information Leaflets on Domestic Effects (German/English). In addition, Links to information and Literature in English available from the Web site of Joachim Rudo, an attorney in Berlin, Germany.
Heidenhain, M./Satzky, H./Stadler, Ch., German Antitrust Law. 5th fully revised edition. New York/Frankfurt am Main: Juris Publishing/Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1999.
Synoptic German-English text of the Act Against Restraints of Competition (takes account of the Sixth Amendment of the Antitrust Act which came into force on January 1, 1999), translations of a number of important statements by the German Federal Cartel Office, useful bibliography of English publications.

Banking Law/Financial Markets/Negotiable Instruments

Schneider, H./Hellwig, H./Kingsman, D. The German Banking System. Frankfurt am Main: Frit z Knapp Verlag, (in preparation)
An introduction to the German banking system and the law on banking supervision, with synoptic English translation of the Banking Act, the Federal Bank Act and other legal provisions.
Siebel, U.R./Prinz zu Löwenstein, M./Finney, R. German Capital Markets Law. München/Dobbs Ferry: C.H. Beck/Oceana, 1996.
Compiles complete English translations of the laws affecting the German financial industry (e.g., German Stock Exchange Law, Stock Exchange Admission Regulations, the Deposit Law, the Special Conditions for Dealings in Securities, as well as important supplementary materials), preceded by a practice-related in-depth introduction.
Panowitz, R./Jung, H. Kreditwesengesetz (German Banking Law). 2nd edition. Neuwied: Luchterhand Verlag, 1995.
German-English commentary.
Zerwas, H. Banking Act - Kreditwesengesetz. Düsseldorf: IDW Verlag GmbH, 1996.
German-English synopsis of the Banking Act as amended on December 31, 1995, with an introduction to the Banking Act and other banking laws.
Banking Act - Kreditwesengesetz.
In English and German from the official Web site of the German Federal Banking Supervisory Office (Bundesaufsichtsamt für das Kreditwesen).
Peltzer, M./Brooks, J. German Banking Law. 4th edition. Köln: Otto Schmidt Verlag, 1995.
German-English text in its revised version of July 11, 1995, with an introduction in English.
Mohr, K. German Insider and Stock Exchange Law / Insider- und Börsenrecht. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1994.
German-English text with commentary, including the Securities Trade Act, the Stock Exchange Law, and the Stock Exchange Admission Regulations.
Peltzer, M./Scesniak, P. German Securities Trade Act / Wertpapierhandelsgesetz. Köln: Dr. Otto Schmidt Verlag, 1995. (new edition in preparation)
Synoptic texts of the German law and its English translation with an introduction in English.
German Securities Trading Act. Wertpapierhandelsgesetz.
The English and German text of the law, along with a chronology of the law in English and German, from the official Web site of the German Federal Securities Supervisory office (Bundesaufsichtsamt für den Wertpapierhandel - BAWe). Also featured under laws and publications on that Web Site are ordinances, guidelines, announcements and letters in both German and English.
BVI Bundesverband Deutscher Investment-Gesellschaften e.V. Investment Companies Act. General and Special Terms of Contract for Securities Funds and Money Market Funds. Frankfurt am Main: BVI, 1996.
English translation of the German Investment Companies Act, the General and Special Terms of Contract for Securities Funds and Money Market Funds, and a list of BVI members complete with addresses, telephone and fax numbers.
Prospectus Act. Wertpapier-Verkaufsprospektgeset z (Verkaufsprospektgesetz).
The English and German text of the law from the official Web site of the German Federal Securities Supervisory office (Bundesaufsichtsamt für den Wertpapierhandel - BAWe). Also featured under laws and publications on that Web Site are ordinances, guidelines, announcements and letters in both German and English.

Insurance Law

Pfennigstorf, W. German Insurance Laws. Statutes and Regulations Concerning Insurance Supervision and Insurance Contracts. Karlsruhe: Verlag Versicherungswirtschaft, 1986.
Summary in a synoptic German-English text of all applicable laws and regulations. Glossary of German terms and abbreviations with translations thereof, useful index.

Law on the Supervision of Insurance Undertakings. Berlin: Bundesaufsichtsamt für das Versicherungswesen, 1997.

Law on the Supervision of Insurance Undertakings. Gesetz über die Beaufsichtigung von Versicherungsunternehmen.
Text of the law as amended per January 2000 in English and German from the official Web site of the German Federal Supervisory Office for the Insurance Industry (Bundesaufsichtsamt für das Versicherungswesen).

Environmental Law

Schenck, K. Environmental Law. München/The Hague: Kluwer Law International/C.H. Beck, 1996.
A compilation of the most important environmental legislation in German and English with an introduction to German environmental law.

Foreign Trade Law

Siebel, U. Aussenwirtschaftsrecht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Foreign Trade Law of the Federal Republic of Germany). Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1989.
Introduction to Germany's Foreign Trade Law and the Foreign Trade Regulations and synoptic German-English text of the law.

Other (Including Industry-Specific Laws)

Federal Act Establishing the General Conditions for Information and Communication Services - Information and Communication Services Act -/ Informations- und Kommunikationsdienste-Gesetz - IukDG.
Available in German and English from the website of the German Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology. Both the English and German site feature a clickable table of contents that takes you to the actual text of the law. The English table of contents includes a German translation of article headings.
Federal Building Code
Available in German and English from the website of the German Ministry for Transport, Construction and Housing.
Federal Regional Planning Act
Available in German and English from the website of the German Ministry for Transport, Construction and Housing.
New German Arbitration Act 1998. Bonn: Deutsche Institution für Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit, 1998.
See also an article summarizing the main features of the new Arbitration Act via the Web site of the German law firm Pünder, Volhard, Weber & Axster (since a merger at the beginning of 2000 Clifford Chance Pünder)
Postal Act/Postgesetz.
Available in German and English from the official website of the German Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Post. The German and English text of the law both have a clickable table of contents that takes you to the actual text of the law.
Telecommunications Laws.
Available in translation from the official website of the German Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Post. The site features the following laws:
-- Telecommunications Act
-- Amateur Radio Act
-- Electronmagnetic Compatibility Act
-- Digital Signature Act
The site also features English translations of pertinent ordinances. These laws are also available in German from the same site.
Chrocziel, P./Esser-Wellié, M./Tschentscher, T. Telecommunications Law in Germany / Telekommunikationsrecht in Deutschland. Köln: Dr. Otto Schmidt Verlag, 1998.
German and English text with an extensive German and English introduction.

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Business and Commercial Law Guides/Handbooks

General Business Law Guides

Rüster, B. (ed.).Business Transactions in Germany (FRG). New York, NY: Matthew Bender; München: C.H. Beck Verlag, current as per May 1999. (Loose-leaf).
Five-volume set in English providing very extensive and in-depth coverage of the various aspects of business dealings and business law in Germany. The different chapters have been written by authorities in these fields and give an overview of the issues involved (such as the government and legal system, general private and commercial law, and business organization). Separate volume of translations of pertinent laws and code sections. Each chapter is preceded by an extensive table of contents. Detailed index of all chapters in volume 3.
Mueller, R./Stiefel, E./Brücher, H. Doing Business in Germany. 9th edition. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag (in preparation).
A manual in English providing a short introduction to the German legal system, the law of contracts and other aspects of law that you have to know for planning purposes.
Reynolds, Thomas H./Flores, Arturo A. Foreign Law: Current Sources of Codes and Basic Legislation in Jurisdictions of the World. Littleton, CO: F. B. Rothman, 1989-. (Loose-leaf).
Comprehensive five-volume encyclopedia designed for the practitioner, scholar and researcher. It covers some 200 countries, each of them in a separate chapter. The chapter on Germany in volume II provides an overview of the country's legal system and legal history, along with bibliographic sources relating hereto. This introduction is followed by a compilation of major publications in both German and English. It has a good subject arrangement by fields of law. Sources available in English are listed alphabetically at the very end of the chapter. This set is very current as it is supplemented three to four times annually.
Germain, Claire M. Germain's Transnational Law Research: A Guide for Attorneys. Ardsley-on-Hudson, NY: Transnational Juris Publications, Inc., 1991-. (Loose-leaf).
This source covers the various procedural and practical aspects of foreign and international law, its substantive issues, and research sources in a well-organized loose-leaf volume with extensive bibliographical references and footnoting.One chapter deals with the legal systems of individual countries, providing references to English translations and digests of primary sources, research guides, reference works, and bibliographies. It has a good index with cross-references to main entries, and appendices featuring a list of publishers in the field, depository libraries, and international organizations.
Foster, N.G. German Legal System and Laws. London: Blackstone Press, 1996.
Böcker, M.H./Märzheuser, B./Nusser, M./Scheja, K. Germany: Practical Commercial Law. European Commercial Law Series. London: Longman Group Ltd., 1992.
Intended to introduce the legal practitioner to German commercial law, this is a practical and straightforward guide which offers a wealth of information on a broad range of German legal issues, including industrial and intellectual property, competition law, business organizations, mergers and acquisitions, agency, insolvency, and others. The introduction explains the structure of the legal profession and the court system in Germany. It also features a legislation table and an index.
CCH Europe. German Tax & Business Law Guide. Droste Killius Triebel, ed. Bicester, England: CCH Europe,1992-. (Loose-leaf).
Single-volume set in commentary/treatise form that is divided into a tax part and a business law part. It has an extensive index updated by a "latest additions to the index" section, as well as a separate cumulative index of new developments, and cases and legislation. Finding lists lead the reader to legislation in the various fields and to cases decided by German courts. Both are updated by a "latest additions to cases" section. Checklists feature important addresses of authorities, translations of the titles of legislation, and a German-English glossary of terms as well as forms. A separate division deals with the international aspects of income tax.
Dannemann, G. An Introduction to German Civil and Commercial Law. London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 1993.
Ebke, W.F. et al. Introduction to German Law. The Hague; London; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1996.
This book discusses the most important areas of private and public law and gives an introduction to German legal culture. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field. It features an extensive table of contents and a summary of contents, a list of abbreviations, and a detailed index with both English and German keywords and cross-references (with translations of major keywords into German given in brackets). Each chapter has its own bibliography.
Hart, J.A. U.S. Business and Today's Germany: A Guide for Corporate Executives and Attorneys. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1995.
Seeking to foster an understanding of Germany as a business partner, this volume provides an overview of the general business environment in Germany, the main forms of doing business, the principal laws involved, arranged by subject, and major US companies in Germany. It features a selected bibliography of German and English source material and a rather modest index.

General Private and Commercial Law

Agency Law

Staubach, F. The German Law of Agency and Distributorship Agreements. European Commercial Law Library series. London: Oyez Publishing, 1977.
A commentary and guide that intends to present in a clear and simple form to the businessman and his professional advisers the leading features of the national commercial laws of the country concerned, and covers all aspects of commercial and distributorship agreements in German law. It has a detailed and sizable index.

Industrial and Intellectual Property Law

Pagenberg, J./Geissler, B. Lizenzverträge - License Agreements. 3rd edition. Köln/Berlin/Bonn/München: Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, 1991.
Annotated sample contracts under German and European law regarding patents, utility models, know-how, and computer softwares, synoptically arranged in German and English. Six appendices, including various EEC regulations, and excerpts from the German Act against Restraints of Competition and the German Patent Act. Further, German and English indexes, a list of abbreviations, and an extensive bibliography of sources in German and English.
Beier, Friedrich-Karl. German Industrial Property, Copyright and Antitrust Laws. 3rd ed. Weinheim: VCH, 1996-.
Shippey, K./Kumar, V./Thurmond, M. (eds). Trademark Practice and Forms. Dobbs Ferry: Oceana, 1998.
This multi-country guide (includes section on Germany) offers information on international trademark practice with detailed explanations of the laws and rules on initial registration requirements and procedures, transfers, assignments, licenses and means of enforcement, summaries of multilateral and bilateral agreements, complete sets of forms for each country.

Real Property Law/Business Tenancies

Mohr, K. The Law Relating to Business Tenancies in Germany. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1985.
Everything you have to know about business tenancies (Gewerbe-Mietrecht) from conclusion to notice. This practical guide reflects years of experience with foreign companies and is tailored to meet their needs.
Volhard, Rüdiger/Weber, Dolf. Real Property in Germany. 4th edition. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1991.
A guide through the legal, financial and taxation problems the foreign investor investing in German real property will encounter that is written in a clear and concise language by practitioners who are recognized experts in their fields. Two of the fifteen chapters deal specifically with the taxation aspects of real property transactions; one chapter provides sample contracts in synoptic presentation of the German and English texts. Includes two pocket-part supplements devoted to specific problems involved in real property investments in East Germany, a keyword index in German and English, and a bibliography on the subject.

Business Organization

Corporate Taxation

Killius, Jürgen. Business Operations in Germany. Tax Management Portfolios, Part III. Foreign Income; no. 962. Tax Management Inc., 1993-. (looseleaf).
Detailed analysis of German income taxation as applied to individuals and corporations and a discussion of net worth tax, trade tax, the value-added tax and inheritance tax. Includes working papers such as forms of tax returns, model articles of incorporation, summaries of the effect of tax treaties of Germany on dividends, interest an royalties, and the texts of the German tax treaties with the US. Updated by "changes and analysis" pages that are filed right behind the table of contents. Index and several finding tools such as a master index by subject, a code sections index, an estate, gifts and trusts classification guide and key word index, and a foreign income classification guide and key word index.
 
Coopers & Lybrand Global Tax Network. 1997 International Tax Summaries/A Guide for Planning and Decisions. New York; Chichester; Brisbane; Toronto; Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997.
A basic practitioner's guide published annually and providing essential domestic tax information overviews of a large number of countries, including Germany. For the many countries it covers, it is good for comparisons. It has no index or footnoting at all and no citations to legislation, cases or literature.
Debatin, Helmut/Endres, Dieter et al. Unternehmensbesteuerung in Deutschland. (Corporate Taxation in Germany). Düsseldorf: IDW-Verlag GmbH, 1994.
This book provides foreign businesses interested in Germany with concise but comprehensive information on the current German tax system and to aid foreign managements and international business consultants in their German investment planning. The text is synoptically presented in German and English. Part 1 explains the basic principles of German tax law that are of primary importance to foreign investors; Part 2 describes the Standortsicherungsgesetz (a recently adopted law to enhance Germany's attractiveness as a business location), with an emphasis on those points pertaining to foreign tax planning; and Part 3 features the text and explanations of the relevant provisions of the Corporation Tax Act and other statutes. There is no subject index.

Labor Law

Weber, U./Wrede, B. German Labour Law. An Investor's Guide to German Labour Law. Köln: PfA Praktikerforum für Arbeits- und Wirtschaftsrecht GmbH, 1996.
Extensive coverage of the pertinent legal provisions, as well as examples of cases, useful selection of sample contracts, notices of dismissal, and other documents in Part VIII, and a list of the official laws with an English translation.
Tepass, M. Termination of Employment in Germany. New York: GACC Publication Services, 1996.
This booklet covers the most important aspects of German termination of employment law of interest to foreign investors and their counsel.

Mergers and Acquisitions

Beinert, D. Corporate Acquisitions and Mergers in Germany. 2nd edition. London/Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1997.
This book is addressed to business executives and their professional advisors and provides a practical overview of the legal, financial and administrative aspects instrumental in corporate mergers and acquisitions in Germany.
Mergers and Acquisitions in Europe. London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 1993.
An introduction to German civil and commercial law including a detailed description ofpertinent German corporation law.
Stewart, Charles E. Mergers and Acquisitions in Germany. Dobbs Ferry: Oceana, 1998.
A monograph discussing the transfer of a business, labor law aspects, U.S. and German taxation.

Business Regulation

Antitrust/Competition Law

Hoffmann, D./Schaub, S. The German Competition Law. Legislation and Commentary. Deventer, the Netherlands: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1983.
This book in English contains pertinent legislation, pronouncements and orders, along with explanatory memoranda and a commentary section with subsections devoted to an introduction, the scope of the GWB and a discussion of substantive law topics.
McClatchey, J.F./Pennock, D.S. Obtaining Discovery Abroad. Chicago, Ill.: Section of Antitrust Law, American Bar Association, 1990.

Banking Law

Schwank, F./Ryder, F.R. (ed.). Banks Abroad. London: Barry Rose, A Division of Kluwer Law Publishers, 1986.
This compendium offers a brief survey of the legal and business aspects of international bank operations in 17 countries, including Germany, and the European Economic Community. It has a table of banking legislation but no index.
Edwards, J.S.S./Fischer, K. Banks, Finance and Investments in Germany. Cambridge; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Schneider, H./Hellwig, H./Kingsman, D. The German Banking System. Frankfurt am Main: Frit z Knapp Verlag, (in preparation)
An introduction to the German banking system and the law on banking supervision, with synoptic German/English texts of the Banking Act, the Federal Bank Act and other legal provisions.

Foreign Trade Law

Siebel, U. Aussenwirtschaftsrecht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Foreign Trade Law of the Federal Republic of Germany). Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1989.
An introduction to the Foreign Trade Law and the Foreign Trade Regulations with synoptic German-English text of the law.

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General Business Information Sources

General Information Sources About Doing Business in Germany

Randlesome, C. The Business Culture in Germany: A Portrait of A Power House. Oxford: Butterworth - Heinemann, 1994.
Kenna, P./Lacy, S. Business Germany: A Practical Guide to Understanding German Business Culture. Lincolnwood, Ill.: Passport Books, 1994.
A basic introduction to communication styles, business etiquette, meanings of gestures, etc., presented as a synoptic comparison of what is customary in the US and Germany.
U.S. State Department: Country Commercial Guides: Germany.
An annual report prepared by the US embassy on Germany from a business and commercial perspective.
Price Waterhouse. Doing Business in Germany. New York: Price Waterhouse, 1991.
A guide prepared to assist those interested in doing business in Germany, it does not cover every subject exhaustively but answers some broad questions regarding Germany's general and business environment, foreign investment, the regulatory environment, banking and finance, issues involved in exporting to Germany, legal forms of business, labor relations, the tax systems, etc. with some useful appendices, e.g., tax rates, a checklist for setting up in Germany, and examples of financial statements.
Doing Business in Germany. Urbacher Hacker Young International, 1993.
Offers an overview of aspects involved in doing business in Germany, including business  organizations, accounting, taxes, labor law, and social insurance. A very basic source designed to offer a general idea of the subject.
Eberwein, W./Tholen, J. Euro-manager or Splendid Isolation? International Management, An Anglo-German Comparison. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1993.
Germany Your Business Partner. Cologne: BfAI (Federal Office of Foreign Trade Information), 1994.
An information brochure on the framework for foreign trade with the Federal Republic of Germany designed to assist foreign business partners to set up businesses and take their first steps in the German market. It covers general aspects of Germany as a business location as well as the practical ones, such as legal issues, foreign trade regulations, taxes, promotion of regional economic development and of the new states, etc. Some useful appendices provide contact addresses of authorities, at federal and local level, economic promotion agencies, credit institutions, and industrial associations.
Hart, J.A. U.S. Business and Today's Germany: A Guide for Corporate Executives and Attorneys. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1995.
Seeking to foster an understanding of Germany as a business partner, this volume provides an overview of the general business environment in Germany, the main forms of doing business, the principal laws involved arranged by subject, and major US companies in Germany. It features a selected bibliography of German and English source material and a rather modest index.

Company Directories

Deutsch-Amerikanische Geschäftsbeziehungen/German American Business Contacts - 1996. Darmstadt: Verlag Hoppenstedt, 1996.
This business directory, which appears in both an English and German edition, is an index to companies arranged in four parts: Part I lists companies by their German domicile towns; Part II lists German companies with their US business partners; Part III, US companies with their German business partners; and Part IV companies according to SIC Code. The first index is arranged geographically by location, the second and third indices are arranged alphabetically by company, and the fourth by branch of industry. This directory includes some useful features such as a list of important US government offices in Germany and German government offices in the US, and lists of abbreviations of the US federal states and of general abbreviations and positions.
Germany's Top... Frankfurt am Main: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH Information Service, 2000.
A handbook of Germany's largest corporations, this source is published annually and provides one-page entries of key information on Germany's top companies ranked by their annual sales/turnover. The information is drawn from databanks, annual reports, and press and public records. Each entry, besides the address, phone and fax number, presents the company's financial results, postal code, products and activities, and management. Appendices list Germany's top banks and insurance companies. Other useful elements include a synoptic presentation of a German, UK and US statement of income, a list of legal forms of German companies, and SIC codes. The three indices are arranged alphabetically by company, by industry and by city. There is a list of advertisers.
Seibt Directory of German Industries. English edition. München: Seibt Verlag, 1996.
A directory in English, French, German, and Spanish. It lists companies and their products in four indices: an alphabetical index of product designations, a classified register of manufacturers and suppliers, a classified register of manufacturers according to the German industrial standard, and an alphabetical company index. Priority in selecting companies for inclusion in the directory is given to manufacturers of investment goods and industry-related service companies (also available on CD-ROM, and as a commercial database with enhanced search features).
German American Chamber of Commerce. Subsidiaries of German Firms in the U.S. 1999/2000. Tochtergesellschaften deutscher Unternehmen in den USA 1999/2000. New York, NY: GACC Publication Services, 1999.
This source provides a number of indices that list subsidiaries of German firms in the US (in an alphabetical directory, and classified by state and SIC Code). Entries include, beside the address, the type of products, number of employees, name and address of parent in Germany, Web site and e-mail information, if any.

Online Attorney Directories (Selection)

Anwaltsverzeichnis
The online version of the German attorney directory published by Soldan Verlag GmbH on behalf of Deutscher Anwaltsverein (German Lawyers' Association). Also searches for courts at different levels.
Kanzleien in Deutschland
The online version of Kanzlei 500 in German language. Lists law firms in Germany alphabetically, by court district and rank in certain practice areas and regions. It refers to international affiliations and features additional legal news and information.
The Legal 500: Germany
An online international law firm directory in English based on the Legal 500 series from the Web site of Legalease, an independent publisher in the UK (See also Kanzleien in Deutschland and Kanzlei 500 above). The German law firm directory lists firms alphabetically and by size, and gives recommendations for law firms in certain practice areas.
Martindale Hubbell National and International Law Directory
The very current online version of the US and international attorney directory which is also available in print and on CD-ROM.

Comprehensive Business and Legal Sites

The International Centre for Commercial Law
A great site to check for law firms and business law, with indices to law firms by practice area, and to find out about recent legal developments.
Lex Mundi. Hieros Gamos, the Comprehensive Legal Site
A site which provides access to international law firms, business guides, a searcheable law firm directory and a law library.
The Virtual Foreign and International Legal Resources Collection of New York University School of Law Library
An extensive collection with an excellent compilation of laws, directories, dictionaries and other legal materials, including Germany.
German Law: Resources in English via the Law-Related Internet Project Saarbrücken
A comprehensive collection of German statutes and other legal materials in English with references to many other legal links.

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Legal and Business Dictionaries

Dictionaries in Print Format

Kageneck, Karl-Erbo Graf. Begriffswörterbuch der deutsch-amerikanischen Rechtssprache - Immobilien und Steuern. (Dictionary of Terms in German-American Legalese) München: C.H. Beck, 1998.
Business German Dictionary. English-German/German-English. Teddington: Peter Collins Publishing, 1994.
This dictionary with 50,000 entries comprehensively covers all aspects of business, including British/US usage. Textboxes illustrate usage by quotes from authoritative sources such as major newspapers. Useful features include a list of international telephone codes, instructions on how to answer the phone in German, a synoptic presentation of how to draft a curriculum vitae or job application in German and English, as well as lists of UK counties, US states, Canadian provinces, German states, and Swiss cantons.
Kageneck, Karl-Erbo Graf. Deutsch-amerikanisches Begriffslexikon für Direktinvestitionen. Immobilien Steuern Gesellschaftsrecht Allgemeines. (German-American Dictionary of Terms for Direct Investment. Real Estate, Taxes, Corporate Law, General.) München: C.H. Beck, 1998.
Addressed to translators, legal advisors, private investors and corporate consultants this dictionary, which covers 1200 entries and 250 topics, defines German legal terms and concepts in English and vice versa. Features standard contracts in English and an alphabetical index of English terms.
Zahn, H.E. Dictionary of Banking and Stock Trading / Wörterbuch für das Bank- und Börsenwesen. 4th completely revised edition. Part 1: German-English: 1994; Part 2: English-German: 1996. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1994/1996.
A comprehensive dictionary with over 70,000 entries, designed for users in business and the financial service sector and translators, this source carries terms from all fields involved in modern business, including since its most recent edition the futures, options, swaps and other derivative instruments business. It illustrates differing meanings of terms by the example of sentences; and provides explanations of mechanisms, instruments, and institutions involved in banking and stock trading.
Romain, A. Dictionary of Legal and Commercial Terms. Part I: English-German. 5th edition, 2000. Part II: German-English. 3rd edition, 1994. München: C.H. Beck.
A handy dictionary that provides good coverage of the terminology of the field.
Zahn, H.E. Englisch-Deutsches Glossarium finanzieller und wirtschaftlicher Fachausdrücke. (English-German Glossary of Financial and Commercial Terms) 3rd completely revised edition. Frankfurt am Main: Fritz Knapp Verlag, 1989.
An up-to-date, practice-oriented reference source with banking terminology as one of its central parts.
Schäfer, W. Financial Dictionary. Fachwörterbuch Finanzen, Banken, Börse. Part I: English-German. 3rd edition, in preparation. Part II: German-English. 2nd edition, 1992. München: C.H. Beck.
Law and Commercial Dictionary in Five Languages. München: C.H. Beck (in assocation with du Juris-Classeurs, Paris/West Publishing Company, St. Paul, Minn.), 1985.
A two-volume set providing definitions of the legal and commercial terms and phrases of American, English and civil law jurisdictions. English to German, Spanish, French, Italian.
Dietl, C.E./Lorenz, E. Wörterbuch für Recht, Wirtschaft und Politik/Dictionary of Legal, Commercial and Political Terms. Part I: English-German. 5th edition, 1990. Part II: German-English, 4th ed., 1992. München: C.H. Beck, 1990/1992. (Also available on CD-ROM, 1st edition, 1997).
This comprehensive and useful dictionary combines translations of terms and commentaries on their content in German and English, as well as explanations of the peculiarities of American usage.
Bernem, Theodor v. Wirtschaftsenglisch - Wörterbuch: englisch-deutsch, deutsch-englisch. München: R. Oldenbourg, 1991.
Schäfer, W. Wirtschaftswörterbuch (Dictionary of Economic Terms). Volume I: English-German. 6th revised edition, 1998. Volume II: German-English. 5th revised edition, 1997. München: Vahlen, 1996/1997. (Also available in CD-ROM format: Schäfer, W. & M. Windows Hyperbook, Version 3.0, 1999; Version 2.0, 1997)
With 58,000 entries in volume I and 54,000 entries in Volume II, this two-volume set provides translations of economic terms along with explanatory annotations of meanings in different fields.

Online Dictionaries and Translating Aids

Dictionary German-English/English-German
A dictionary with 120,000 entries maintained by Chemnitz University.
LEO English/German Dictionary
An online dictionary with almost 200,000 entries maintained by the information technology department of Munich Technical University. Incorporated is Honey's Business dictionary with 34,000 entries.
The New English-German Dictionary
A German-English/English-German dictionary with more than 187,000 entries maintained by Dresden Technical University.
Translations of German Court Names
Triacom, a translation services provider, offers on its Web site translation of German court names in three languages, including English.
VAT Dictionary German-English
A very limited list of basic VAT-related terms in German and English.

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German Business and Commercial Laws in the Vernacular - Major WWW Sites

Das Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch (The German Civil Code)
The German Civil Code via the Web site of the W.A.F. Institute.
Einführungsgesetz zum Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch (Introductory Law to the Civil Code)
Text of the law via the Web site of Freiburg University Law School.
The German Federal Law Gazette (Bundesgesetzblatt), Part I
The German Federal Law Gazette in full text since 1949. Access to the site is free, but requires registration.
The German Federal Law Gazette, Part I since January 1998 via the government publisher Bundesanzeiger
Features the free read-only version in pdf format.
Gesetze im WWW
A comprehensive database of German laws in the vernacular on the World Wide Web, including information on the currency of the laws.
Gesetze von A-Z. Laws from A to Z.
An extensive list of German laws in the vernacular provided by Compuserve. The site features a search engine.
German Labor Law Database
A compilation of German labor law in the vernacular from the homepage of the German Federal Ministry of Labor.
REFACT. Die deutsche Rechtsdatenbank
A comprehensive fee-based legal database on the WWW with most German laws in the vernacular, arranged by wide areas of law and by
type of legal material.
TRANSPATENT. Rechtsdatenbank zum gewerblichen Rechtsschutz
A comprehensive and current industrial property database via Dr. Jochen Krieger, an attorney specializing in this field, which contains the full text in the vernacular of German laws relating to industrial property along with supplementary sources and pertinent literature.
Taxlinks
A comprehensive listing of links to German laws, legal literature, legal publishers, and link databases.
Abbreviations of German Laws/Abkürzungen deutscher Gesetze
Provided courtesy of Triacom translation service.

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List of Publishers

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Alphabetical Index of Laws Available in Translation

Alphabetical Index English-German

  • Arbitration Act - Schiedsgerichtsordnung
  • Act Against Unfair Competition - Gesetz gegen unlauteren Wettbewerb
  • Act on Limited Liability Companies - Gesetz betreffend die Gesellschaften mit beschränkter Haftung
  • Banking Act - Kreditwesengesetz
  • Bankruptcy Act - Konkursgesetz
  • Civil Code - Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch
  • Co-Determination Act - Mitbestimmungsgesetz
  • Commercial Code - Handelsgesetzbuch
  • Copyright Act - Urheberrechtsgesetz
  • Corporation Tax Law - Körperschaftsteuergesetz
  • Court Composition Act - Vergleichsordnung
  • (Federal) Data Protection Act - Bundesdatenschutzgesetz
  • Deposit Act - Depotgesetz
  • Employment Promotion Act - Arbeitsförderungsgesetz
  • Foreign Taxation Law - Aussensteuergesetz
  • German Law Pertaining to Companies with Limited Liability - Gesetz betreffend die Gesellschaften mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH-Gesetz)
  • Income Tax Law - Einkommensteuergesetz
  • Information and Communication Services Act - Informations- und Kommunikationsdienste-Gesetz
  • Insolvency Code - Insolvenzordnung
  • Introductory Act to the Civil Code - Einführungsgesetz zum Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch
  • Investment Companies Act - Gesetz über Kapitalanlagegesellschaften
  • Labor Management Relations Act - Betriebsverfassungsgesetz
  • Law against Restraints on Competition - Gesetz gegen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen (Kartellgesetz)
  • Law Governing Standard Business Conditions - Gesetz zur Regelung des Rechts der Allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungen
  • Law on the Supervision of Insurance Untertakings - Gesetz über die Beaufsichtigung der Versicherungsunternehmen
  • Patent Act - Patentgesetz
  • Postal Act - Postgesetz
  • Private Companies Act - GmbH-Gesetz
  • Prospectus Act - Wertpapier-Verkaufsprospektgesetz (Verkaufsprospektgesetz)
  • Protection from Dismissal Act - Kündigungsschutzgesetz
  • Publishing Act - Verlagsgesetz
  • Securities Trade Act - Wertpapierhandelsgesetz
  • Standard Contracts Act
  • Stock Corporation Act - Aktiengesetz
  • Stock Exchange Admission Regulations - Börsenzulassungsgesetz
  • Stock Exchange Law - Börsengesetz
  • Takeover Code - Übernahmekodex
  • Telecommunications Act - Telekommunikationsgesetz
  • Trademark Act - Markengesetz
  • Transformation Act - Umwandlungsgesetz
  • Transformation Taxation Act - Umwandlungsteuergesetz
  • Turnover Tax Law - Umsatzsteuergesetz
  • Utility Model Act - Geschmacksmustergesetz

Alphabetical Index German-English

  • Aktiengesetz (AktG) - Stock Corporation Act
  • Allgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen der Banken für das Wertpapiergeschäft - Special Conditions for Dealings in Securities
  • Außensteuergesetz (AStG) - Foreign Taxation Law
  • Betriebsverfassungsgesetz (BetrVerfG) - Labor Management Relations Act
  • Börsengesetz (BörsG) - Stock Exchange Law
  • Börsenzulassungsverordnung (BörsZulV) - Stock Exchange Admission Regulation
  • Bundesdatenschutzgesetz (BDSG) - Federal Data Protection Act
  • Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB) - Civil Code
  • Depotgesetz (DepotG) - Deposit Act
  • Einführungsgesetz zum Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch (EGBGB) - Introductory Act to the Civil Code
  • Einkommensteuergesetz (EStG) - Income Tax Act
  • Gesetz betreffend die Gesellschaften mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbHG) - Law Pertaining to Companies with Limited Liability
  • Gesetz gegen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen (Kartellgesetz) (GWB) - Law against Restraints on Competition
  • Gesetz über Kapitalanlagegesellschaften (KAGG) - Investment Companies Act
  • Gesetz zur Regelung des Rechts der Allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungen (AGBG) - German Law Governing Standard Business Conditions
  • Handelsgesetzbuch (HGB) - Commercial Code
  • Informations- und Kommunikationsdienste-Gesetz (IuKDG) - Information and Communication Services Act
  • Insolvenzordnung (InsO) - Insolvency Code
  • Kartellgesetz (Gesetz gegen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen - GWB) - Antitrust Law (Law Against Restraints of Competition)
  • Körperschaftsteuergesetz (KStG) - Corporation Tax Act
  • Kreditwesengesetz (KWG) - Banking Act
  • Kündigungsschutzgesetz - Protection from Dismissal Act
  • Markengesetz (MarkenG)- Trademark Act
  • Mitbestimmungsgesetz (MitbestG) - Co-Determination Act
  • Patentgesetz (PatG) - Patent Law
  • Postgesetz (PostG) - Postal Act
  • Schiedsgerichtsordnung - Arbitration Act
  • Telekommunikationsgesetz (TKG) - Telecommunications Law
  • Übernahmekodex - Takeover Code
  • Umsatzsteuergesetz (UStG) - Turnover Tax Law
  • Umwandlungsgesetz (UmwG) - Reorganization Act
  • Umwandlungsteuergesetz (UmwStG) - Reorganization Tax Act
  • Urheberrechtsgesetz (UrhG) - Copyright Act
  • Vergleichsordnung (VergleichsO) - Court Composition Act
  • Verlagsgesetz (VerlagsG) - Publishing Act
  • Versicherungsaufsichtsgesetz - Law on the Supervision of Insurance Untertakings
  • Wertpapierhandelsgesetz (WphG) - Securities Trade Act