Features - A Guide to Russian Legal Research

Marina Konioukhova is the Head of Business and Legal Information Center of the Saint-Petersburg City Public Library. She graduated from the Saint-Petersburg State University of Culture and Art in 1979, and was the Chief Bibliographer of the Saint-Petersburg City Public Library for eight years thereafter. In 1995, she headed a new department of the Library - the Business Information Center. In 1998, the Business Information Center created a special Center of Legal Information.

Additions may be identified by        (yellow background color).


Table of Contents

General Information About the Russian Federation
State Structure and State System
The Constitution of the Russian Federation
The Federative Treaty
State Authorities in the Russian Federation
The President of the Russian Federation
The State Council of the Russian Federation
Pleninpotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation of the Russian Federation in the Federal District (Areas)
Other Authorities Subordinate to the President of the Russian Federation
Legislative Authorities
The Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation
The State Duma
The Federation Council
Legislative Process
Executive Authorities
The Government of the Russian Federation
Federal Organs of the Executive Authority
Federal Ministries of the Russian Federation
State Committees of the Russian Federation
Federal Commissions of the Russian Federation
Federal Services of the Russian Federation
Russian Agencies of the Russian Federation
Federal Supervision Commissions
Judicial System of the Russian Federation
General Provisions
The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation
The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation
The Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation
Official Publication of Laws, Legal Acts and Documents
Federal Jurisdiction and Jurisdiction of the Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation
Jurisdiction
Federal Jurisdiction
Joint Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction of the Federal Subjects
Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation
State, Legislative & Executive Authorities of the Federal Subjects
Federal Districts (Areas) of the Russian Federation
Republics Within the Russian Federation
Krais (Provinces) Within the Russian Federation
Oblasts (Regions) Within the Russian Federation
City - Subjects of Federal Significance Within the Russian Federation
Autonomous Oblast (Region) Within the Russian Federation
Autonomous Okrugs (Districts) Within the Russian Federation
Legal Systems, Databases, Guides and Indexes
Legal System "Garant"
Legal Systems "Kodeks"
Nationwide Russian Network for Distribution of Legal Information "Consultant Plus"
Legal Databases, Catalogues, Guides & Indexes

General Information About the Russian Federation

Russia (the Russian Federation) is a democratic, federative, law-based state with the republican form of government. State power is divided among the legislative, executive and judicial branches, which are independent of one another.

With an area of 6,592,800 square miles (17,075,400 square kilometres), Russia is the world's largest country. It ranks sixth in the world in population, following China, India, the United States, Indonesia, and Brazil. The great majority of the people are Russians, but there also are some 70 smaller national groups living within its borders.

Russia consists of 89 federal subjects - 21 autonomous republics, six krais (provinces), 49 oblast (regions), two cities of federal status, one autonomous oblast and ten autonomous okrugs (districts), each endowed with equal rights.

The capital of the Russian Federation is the city of Moscow. The status of the capital is established by the federal law.

The state language of the Russian Federation throughout its territory is the Russian language. The republics have the right to institute their own state languages. They are used alongside the state language of the Russian Federation in bodies of state power, bodies of local self-government and state institutions of the republics.

Until December, 1991 the Russian Federation was part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, in which it was one of fifteen republics. Since 1991, Russia has struggled in its efforts to build a democratic political system and market economy.

Background Notes: Russia (in English)
http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/russia_0005_bgn.html
Brief information about Russia, its geography, people, government, economy, history, political and judicial system, foreign relations which is published on the official site of the U.S. Department of State.

The World Factbook 2002: RUSSIA  (in English)
http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html

Information and facts about the Russian Federation on the official site of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the USA.

Russia in the international system (in English)
http://www.cia.gov/nic/pubs/conference_reports/russia_conf.html
In February 2001, the National Intelligence Council sponsored a conference that examined Russia's evolution and its role within the international system over the next three to five years. The conference brought together approximately 100 government and outside experts. It consisted of six panels with presentations by more than 20 US and European non-governmental experts, followed by question-and-answer sessions. The purpose of the conference was not to arrive at a consensus but to deepen understanding of Russia and how it interacts with the outside world.

Russia - geographic location, resources, population, main cities  (in English)
http://www.russianembassy.org/RUSSIA/geograf.htm

Soviet Union: A Country Study (in English)
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/sutoc.html
A country study of Soviet Union, its history, government structure, state and economic policy, prepared by Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (in English)
http://tm.mednet.md/M%20ac&hys/Union%20of%20Soviet%20Socialist%20Republics.htm

The Bucknell Russian Program (in English)
http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/
This site contains an annotated catalogue of  links to information about different aspects of Russian life and society, its history and culture.

Russia and the Newly Independent States (in English)
http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_regions.asp?REGION=4

Russia Political, Economic and Environmental Information and News (in English)
http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_country.asp?vcountry=142

Russia Political, Economic and Environmental Information and News (in English)
http://www.countrywatch.com/files/142/cw_country.asp?vCOUNTRY=142

Russia's Development Strategy to the Year 2010 (in English)
http://www.russiaeurope.mid.ru/RussiaEurope/strategy2010.html

State Structure and State System

Russia was an absolute monarchy - the Russian Empire - before 1917.

On November 7, 1917, the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized control and established the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (R.S.F.S.R.). Even before the R.S.F.S.R. had been established, the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets had created a Soviet republic out of the former Russian Empire. The Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets (January 1918) announced the creation of the R.S.F.S.R., and the republic's first constitution was promulgated in July 1918.

On December 30, 1922, the R.S.F.S.R. and the other republics (Ukrainian, Belorussian and Transcaucasian republics) entered the formal federation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), whose constitution was ratified in 1924.

Under the Soviet constitutions, the R.S.F.S.R. nominally was a sovereign socialist state that derived its power from the workers and peasants. The 1936 constitution, established a federal structure that lasted for about 50 years, despite changes introduced in 1978.

The R.S.F.S.R. was politically divided into autonomous republics, autonomous oblasti and okruga  - which were the homelands of the more important non-Russian nationalities - as well as provinces and kraya , the latter division including the autonomous provinces and districts. All these divisions were represented in the legislative branch: the Supreme Soviets of the U.S.S.R. and of the R.S.F.S.R., both of which were bicameral (a Soviet of the Federation and a Soviet of Nationalities). Under this system the highest organ of state power in the republic was the Supreme Soviet of the R.S.F.S.R., which appointed the Council of Ministers as its highest executive and administrative organ

From the late 1980s through 1991 fundamental changes took place in the political system and government structures of the U.S.S.R. that altered both the nature of the Soviet federal state and the status and powers of the individual republics.

In June 1990 the Congress of the R.S.F.S.R. proclaimed that Russian laws took precedence over Soviet laws. In April 1991 the post of President of the Russian Federation was created to head the executive branch and to be elected by popular vote.

On December, 26 the U.S.S.R. was formally dissolved. Concurrently, the Russian Federation and 10 other former Soviet republics established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which was to replace the Soviet Union with a more loosely structured federation. Russia played a leading role in the creation of the CIS and has maintained its status as the dominant member.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation became its largest successor state, inheriting its permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council, as well as the bulk of its foreign assets and debt.

The 1993 Constitution declares Russia a democratic and federative state with a republican form of government. Federative relations were formed on the basis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federative Treaty and  agreements between the federal center and the subjects of the federation.

The Constitution of the Russian Federation

The Constitution (http://www.constitution.ru/) is recognized to be the primary source of law in Russia.

The Constitution is the highest legal act which has a direct effect and supreme legal force and which is applicable throughout the entire territory of the Russia. No laws and other legal acts adopted by the Russian Federation and lower administrative units (sub units of the Russian Federation) may contravene to the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

The present Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted at the nation-wide referendum on 12 December 1993. No substantial amendments to the Constitution were introduced since then. Sub units of the Russian Federation have their own constituent documents.

The Constitution of the Russian Federation includes the following chapters:

  • The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System
  • Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen
  • The Federal Structure
  • The President of the Russian Federation
  • The Federal Assembly
  • The Government of the Russian Federation
  • Judicial Power
  • Local Self-government
  • Constitutional Amendments and Review of the Constitution

The new Constitution of the Russian Federation became the most democratic and perfect Constitution in history of Russia. The previous Constitutions  were very influenced by French constitutional model with strong President in political system and detailed description of rights and freedoms according standards of Universal Declaration of Human's Rights of 1948 year.

Constitution of 1993 - the document that actually created new legal system of Russia, that is based on constitutional principles. Such constitutional constructions as Parliament, subjects of Federation, self-management, Constitutional Court became every day practice.

The Constitution of the RSFSR 1918 (in English)
http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/1918toc.html

The Constitution of the USSR 1936 (in English)
http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/1936toc.html

The Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the USSR 1977 (in English)
http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/1977toc.html

The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993 (in Russian, English, French & Germany)
http://www.constitution.ru/


The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993 (in Russian)
http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/constit.html

The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993 (in English)
http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/

http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/constit.html)


The Declaration of Independence of Russia 1990 (in Russian)
http://www.cityline.ru/politika/doc/dogs.html

The Federative Treaty

The Federative Treaty on allocation of subject matter jurisdiction and competence between the federal bodies of state power and bodies of state power of sub units of the Russian Federation (http://www.ufacity.info/nb/federationdogovorrf.htm) was signed on March 31, 1992 by plenipotentiary representatives of the federal state power bodies of the Russian Federation and the power bodies of republics within the Russian Federation. The Treaty consisted of three separate documents, each pertaining to one type of regional jurisdiction. It outlined powers reserved for the central government, shared powers and residual powers to be exercised primarily by the federal subjects.

The federation was formed of administrative-territorial and national-territorial units: republics, territories, regions, federal cities, an autonomous region and autonomous areas, which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation.

The federated structure of the Russian Federation is based on its state integrity, the uniform system of state power, delimitation of scopes of authority and powers between the bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and the bodies of state power of the subjects of the Russian Federation, equality and self-determination of the peoples in the Russian Federation.

All the subjects of the Russian Federation are equal among themselves in relations with the federal bodies of state power.

The Federative Treaty on allocation of subject matter jurisdiction and competence between the federal bodies of state power and bodies of state power of sub units of the Russian Federation:
http://www.geocities.com/Eureka/Enterprises/2493/fedtreat.html
(in English)
http://www.cityline.ru/politika/doc/fd.html
(in Russian)

Historical roots of federalism in Russia (in English)
http://petrsu.karelia.ru/International/courses/history/topic12_1.htm

State Authorities in the Russian Federation

The Constitution of the Russian Federation states: "State power in the Russian Federation is exercised on the basis of the separation of legislative, executive, and judicial powers. Organs of legislative, executive and judicial power are independent" (Article 10) http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page1.html#P36_4763)

State power in the Russian Federation is exercised by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federal Assembly (the Federation Council and the State Duma), the Government of the Russian Federation and courts of the Russian Federation.

State power in the subjects of the Russian Federation is exercised by the organs of state authority formed by them.

The scopes of authority and powers of the bodies of state authority of the Russian Federation and the bodies of state authority of the subjects of the Russian Federation are delimited under the Constitution of the Russian Federation, Federal and other Treaties on the delimitation of scopes of authority and powers.

The President of the Russian Federation

The Russian Federation is a presidential republic.

The President of the Russian Federation (http://president.kremlin.ru/) is the head of state, the guarantor of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, of human and civil rights and freedoms.

In accordance with the procedure established by the Constitution the President of the Russian Federation  takes measures to protect the sovereignty of the Russian Federation, its independence and state integrity, and ensure concerted functioning and interaction of all bodies of state power.

The President of the Russian Federation defines the basic domestic and foreign policy guidelines of the state in accordance with the Constitution and federal laws.

The President of the Russian Federation as head of state represents the Russian Federation inside the country and in international relations.

The President of the Russian Federation is elected for a term of four years by the citizens of the Russian Federation on the basis of general, equal and direct vote by secret ballot. The procedure for electing the President of the Russian Federation is determined by federal law.

The President of the Russian Federation heads the Security Council and the Defense Council, he is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

The President of the Russian Federation:

  • appoints Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation subject to consent of the State Duma
  • appoints and dismisses deputy chairmen of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers as proposed by the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation
  • submits to the Federation Council candidates for appointment to the office of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation as well as the candidate for Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation
  • submits to the Federation Council the proposal on relieving the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation of his duties
  • appoints the judges of other federal courts
  • has the right to preside over meetings of the Government of the Russian Federation
  • decides on resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation
  • introduces to the State Duma a candidate for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation
  • submits to the State Duma the proposal on relieving the Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation of his duties
  • forms and heads the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the status of which is determined by federal law
  • endorses the military doctrine of the Russian Federation
  • forms the staff of the President of the Russian Federation
  • appoints and dismisses plenipotentiary representatives of the President of the Russian Federation
  • appoint and dismisses the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
  • appoints and recalls, after consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the Federal Assembly, diplomatic representatives of the Russian Federation to foreign states and international organizations.

The President of the Russian Federation introduces draft laws in the State Duma, signs and publishes federal laws.  

The President of the Russian Federation issues decrees and executive order which are binding throughout the territory of the Russian Federation. The President of the Russian Federation has the right to suspend acts by organs of executive power of the subjects of the Russian Federation if such acts contravene the Constitution and federal laws, the international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in appropriate court.

The Administration of the President  (http://www.gov.ru/main/page2.html) is formed in accordance with the Article 83 of the Constitution of the Russian Constitution and is the state organ  which supports the Russian Federation President's activities. The Administration is guided by the Constitution, federal laws, edicts and directives of the Russian Federation president, as well as the present Statute. The Statute on the Administration, its maximum number of employees, and the Administration's estimated budget are approved by the President of the Russian Federation.

On the Election of the President of the Russian Federation (31.12.1999) (in English)
http://www.ifes.ru/english/library/laws/presidelect_eng/index.html

http://democracy.ru/english/library/laws/presidelect_eng/

List of Federal Laws and other Normative acts regulating the early Election of the President of the Russian Federation (in English) http://www.ifes.ru:8101/eng/el_laws/4/index.html

On Ratification of the Statute on the Russian Federation President's Administration (in English)
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/docs/edict_1412.htm

The President of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.cityline.ru/politika/prez/prez.html
Text of the president's oath, information about his legal status, authorities and administration.

Biography of the President of Russia Vladimir Putin (in English)
http://www.russianembassy.org/RUSSIA/President.HTM

Vladimir Putin (in English) 
http://vladimirputin.4u.ru/
http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Parliament/5160/Putin/
Information about the life and career of the president of Russia Vladimir Putin, with many pictures.

Inauguration Speech of President of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.russianembassy.org/RUSSIA/Speech-president.htm

The Protocol of the President of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.gov.ru/protocol/practica_eng/pr_en_1.html

Vladimir Putin's Presidential Election Website (in Russian & in English)
http://www.putin2000.ru

Russian Presidential Presse Service Reports (in English)
http://www.ln.mid.ru/bl.nsf/goseng?OpenView&Start=1&Count=50&Expand=1#1

Interview of the President of Russia (full text) (in English)
http://russia.strana.ru/stories/2000/12/26/977851612/977855752.html
Vladimir Putin sums up the results of his first year of presidency.

In the First Person: Conversation with Vladimir Putin (in Russian)
http://www.vagrius.com/books/putin/index.shtml
The full text of a book that was placed by the Vagrius publishers on its web site on March 13, 2001.

The Residence of the President of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.moscowkremlin.ru/NS/english/22.html

Vladimir Putin (in English)
http://www.abcnews.go.com/reference/bios/putin.html#top

Reference information
and latest articles on the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin.

Vladimir Putin: year and a half as Russian President (in English)
http://www.romir.ru/eng/research/putin-analysis.htm

Article about the results of the political research of an independent research agency ROMIR Research Group (Russian Public Opinion & Market Research
).

The State Council of the Russian Federation

The RF State Council (SC) was established on 1 September 2000 by RF President Vladimir Putin's decree.  Originally, the State Council was instituted in Russia in 1801. By 1810 it became the supreme legislative and advisory body of the Russian Empire. The State Council played an important role in preparation and release of the first Complete Code of Laws of the Russian Empire. It also took an active part in developing the legislative base of the 1860-1870s reforms (such as abolition of serfdom and others).

The State Council of the Russian Federation is an advisory body, assisting the Head of a State in realization of powers on issues of ensuring the coordinated functioning and interaction of state bodies of power.
 The President of the Russian Federation is the Chairman of the State Council.
Supreme officials (heads of supreme executive state bodies of power) of constituent subjects of the Russian Federation are the members of the State Council.

The activity of the State Council is guided by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal constitutional laws, federal laws, decrees and resolutions of the President of the Russian Federation, and also by the present Regulations.
One of the principal tasks of the State Council is to assist the President of the Russian Federation in conciliation procedures in case of disagreements between state bodies of power of the Russian Federation and state bodies of power of constituent subjects of the Russian Federation, and also between state bodies of power within constituent subjects of the Russian Federation.

Decree of the President of the Russian Federation «On the State Council of the Russian Federation» (01.09.2000)
http://www.gov.karelia.ru/gov/Leader/Gossovet/ukaz.html
 (in Russian)
http://www.kazanfed.ru/en/docum/ukaz/2/
 (in English)
 
Regulations about the State Council of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.russiamonitor.org/en/main.asp?menu_id=1_a_170_27

General provisions, primary goals, structure and the organization of work of the State Counsil.

The State Council of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.cityline.ru/politika/gos/gs.html
Information about the history, structure and functions of the State Council.

First anniversary of the establishment of the State Council of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://english.pravda.ru/politics/2001/09/01/13980.html
Article about the establishment of the State Council of the Russian Federation.

The State Council in the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.msps.ru/eng/libr/rr5/3.html

 

The Pleninpotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation of the Russian Federation in the Federal District (Areas)

The plenipotentiary representative of the President of the Russian Federation in federal district (hereinafter referred to as the plenipotentiary) is the official, representing the President of the Russian Federation within the respective federal district. There are 7 federal districts in the Russian Federation: Central, North-West, Volga (Privolzhsky), Urals, Syberian, Far Easten and Southern federal districts.

The plenipotentiary provides for realization of the constitutional powers of the head of state within the respective federal district.

The plenipotentiary is the federal civil servant and part of the Administration of the President of the Russian Federation.

The plenipotentiary is appointed and dismissed by the President of the Russian Federation upon the representation of the Head of Administration of the President of the Russian Federation (article 83 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation).

The plenipotentiaries are immediately subordinated to the President of the Russian Federation and accountable to him.

Decree of the President of the Russian Federation «On Plenipotentariary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal District» (13.05.2000)
http://www.kazanfed.ru/en/docum/ukaz/1/
 (in English)
http://www.100mb.ru/~grankin/docs/ru_ukaz019.htm
 (in Russian)

Plenipotentiary Representatives of the RF President in the Federal Areas (in Russian)
http://geocities.com/wervov/Predstav.htm
 
http://www.100mb.ru/~grankin/russia/ru_prez14.htm

Federal districts of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.fccland.ru/english/map-fed.htm

Russian President's Plenipotentiary to the Central Federal District (Area) (in Russian)
http://www.cfopolpred.ru/
 (official site)
http://www.cfo-regions.ru/index.html

Russian president's plenipotentiary to the Northwestern Federal District (in Russian)
http://nw.wnet.ru/rus/

Russian president's plenipotentiary to the Southern Federal District (in Russian)
http://www.100mb.ru/~grankin/russia/ru_prez14.htm#05

http://delvesti.volgorod.ru/index.shtml?6_2002/txt/region/ufo.txt

Russian president's plenipotentiary to the Siberian Federal District (in Russian)
http://www.sibfo.ru/polpred/

Russian president's plenipotentiary to the Urals Federal District (in Russian)
http://www.uralfo.ru/polpred.html

Russian president's plenipotentiary to the Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District (in Russian)
http://www.pfo.ru/

Russian president's plenipotentiary to the Far-Eastern Federal District (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8633/

 

The Security Council

The Security Council (http://www.scrf.gov.ru/) is a constitutional organ that prepares the Russian Federation president's decisions on questions of ensuring the protection of vitally important interests of the individual, society, and the state against internal and external threats and conducting a unified state policy in the sphere of safeguarding security.

The Security Council is formed by the President of the Russian Federation in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and Russian Federation law "On Security."

The Security Council's main tasks are to:

  • determine the vitally important interests of society and the state and identify internal and external threats to security;
  • elaborate the main areas of the strategy for safeguarding the security of the Russian Federation and organize the preparation of federal targeted programs to ensure it;
  • prepare recommendations for the Russian Federation president on decisions on matters of Russian Federation domestic and foreign policy in the sphere of safeguarding the security of the individual, society, and state;
  • prepare timely decisions on preventing emergency situations that might lead to significant sociopolitical, economic, military, ecological, and other consequences and on organizing their elimination;
  • prepare proposals for the Russian Federation president on the introduction, extension, or lifting of a state of emergency;
  • devise proposals on coordinating the activities of federal; organs of executive power and organs of executive power in the Russian Federation components in the process of implementing decisions made in the sphere of safeguarding security and assess their effectiveness;
  • improve the system for safeguarding security by elaborating proposals on reforming existing or creating new organs safeguarding the security of the individual, society, and the state.

The Security Council secretary is a Russian Federation official and is directly subordinate to the President of the Russian Federation, he is appointed and dismissed by the President. The Security Council secretary ensures the activities of the Security Council and is in charge of its apparatus.

The Security Council secretary keeps the Russian Federation president informed about problems of the country's internal and external security, defense capability, military-technical cooperation, and development of global information systems; consolidates and submits to the Security Council analytical surveys of information on the state of Russian Federation security; prepares the Security Council's work schedule and creates the agenda for Security Council sessions; coordinates the work of interdepartmental commissions of the Security Council, the academic council under the Security Council, and federal organs of executive power and organs of executive power of the Russian Federation components on the preparation of requisite materials for Security Council sessions; represents the Russian Federation president's interests on matters of security in federal organs of state power and organs of state power in Russian Federation components; submits to the Security Council proposals on the creation, functions, and composition of interdepartmental commissions of the Security Council and academic council under the Security Council.

On the Russian Federation Security Council (in English)
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/docs/edict_1024.htm
Text of the Presidential Edict No. 1024 (10 July 1996)

Members of the Security Council of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.scrf.gov.ru/Personnels/Members.htm

Security and Defense Councils (in English)
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/councils.htm

The Security Council of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.scrf.gov.ru/Documents/History.html
About the history, legal statute, structure and activity of the Security Council of the Russian Federation.

Presse Services Reports on the Security Council of the Russian Federation (in English) http://www.ln.mid.ru/bl.nsf/goseng?OpenView&Start=1&Count=50&Expand=2#2

Other Authorities Subordinate to the President of the Russian Federation

The heads of state organs responsible for security and defense are directly subordinate to the President :

Under the law «On external intelligence» (http://svr.gov.ru/svr_today/doc02.htm), Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) is a forces composition of RF security provision and it’s assigned to protect the personality, society and state security from the external danger with use of methods and means specified by present federal law.

Intelligence activity is carried out by means of:

  • information collecting and processing about real and potential possibilities, actions, plans and intentions of foreign states, organizations and persons affecting the vital interests of Russian Federation (hereinafter - intelligence information);
  • assistance provision in realization of measures fulfilled by the state in behalf of Russian Federation security provision.
  • Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information (FAPSI) (in Russian)  http://www.government.ru/institutions/ministries/details.html?he_id=258

The Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information (FAPSI), the Russian counterpart to the US National Security Agency, was established by the Presidential Decree "On the Federal Government Communications and Information Agency" (http://www.government.ru/institutions/ministries/docs.html?he_id=604) on 19 February 1993, In 1994, the Russian president approved the statute of this secret service. FAPSI replaced the Administration of Information Resources (AIR) at the Presidential Office, which was formed from the KGB Eighth (Encoding) Chief Directorate and Sixteenth Directorate, the Decoding and Radio Interception Service, and the Government Communications Directorate of the USSR KGB.

FSB: History, Legislative Authorities, Operations, Counterintelligence Cases, Organization, Budget and Personnel (in English)
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/fsb/index.html

Foreign Intelligence Service (in English)
http://www.agentura.ru/english/dosie/svr/

Information about the structure and history of Foreign Intelligence Service, its personnel and documents adjusting SVR activity.

FAPSI: History, Legislative Authorities, Operations, Organization, Budget and Personnel (in English)
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/fapsi/index.html

Federal agency of governmental communication and information (in English)
http://www.agentura.ru/english/dosie/fapsi/

General information about FAPSI.

FAPSI History (in Russian & in English)
http://www.agentura.ru/english/dosie/fapsi/story/

Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information (in Russian)
http://www.jetinfo.ru/2000/8/1/article1.8.2000.html

The article about the history and present state of FAPSI.

Soviet-Russian Intelligence Agencies (in English)
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/index.html

This site of the Federation of American Scientists provides a selection of official and unofficial resources about Russian and Soviet Intelligence Agencies.

On Behalf of national security (in Russian and in English)
http://www.agentura.ru/english/

This site is about Russian and world special services and consists of several sections. Section «Press» is devoted to the journalists working in this sphere, «Timeline» - all that happened to special services over the latest ten years, section «Equipment» is devoted to special technical means - from «bugs» to satellites.

The SVR: Russia’s Intelligence Service (in English)
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/svr/c103-gb.htm

The article about the Foreign Intelligence service (SVR) by Gordon Bennett (Conflict Studies Research Centre, Sandhurst UK).

Legislative Authorities

The Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation

According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal Assembly (the Parliament of the Russian Federation) is the permanently functioning representative and legislative organ of the Russian Federation.

The Federal Assembly consists of two chambers:  The Federation Council (http://www.council.gov.ru/) - the upper chamber and The State Duma (http://www.duma.gov.ru/) - the lower chamber.

The procedure for forming the Federation Council and the procedure for electing deputies to the State Duma is established by federal law of the Russian Federation.

The Federal Assembly forms the Audit Chamber (http://www.ach.gov.ru/) to monitor the implementation of the federal budget of the Russian Federation.

Major stages of representative (legislative) power history in Russia and establishing the Council of Federation (in English)
http://www.council.gov.ru/inf_e/history_e.htm

The Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.naa.be/publications/special/rus-fact.html

Special publication (fact sheet) by the North Atlantic Assembly about the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, the State Duma and the Federation Council.

Russian Federal Assembly. Powers and Procedures (in English)
http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/2568/gdsfpro0.html

The Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.council.gov.ru/index_e.htm

This server provides information about the Council of Federation - the upper chamber of the Russian parliament, its status and power.

The Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.ach.gov.ru/eng/

Web-site of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation - the supreme body of state financial control of Russia.

Federal Law "On the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation"
http://www.ach.gov.ru/zakon/fedzakon/zakon.shtml
(in Russian)
http://www.cagindia.org/mandates/Mandates/Russia.html#Russia_Law (in English)
Text of the Federal Law passed by the State Duma on November 18, 1994; approved by the Federation Council on December 7, 1994.)

Legislature of Russia (in Russian)
http://www.legislature.ru/

This site provides information about the legislative authorities of the Russian Federation, about the history of Russian Parliamentarism, it has links to the Russian legal databases, to the regional Parliaments of the Russian Federation and to the electronic versions of the new books about the Russian legislative, executive and judicial authorities.

Federal Law "On the Audit Chamber of the Russian Federation" (in Russian)
http://www.ach.gov.ru/zakon/zakon.shtml

The State Duma

The State Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma)  (http://www.duma.gov.ru/) is the lower house of the Federal Assembly, the Parliament of the Russian Federation. The first State Duma was elected on December 12, 1993 simultaneously with the adoption of the new Constitution in a national referendum.

The State Duma consists of 450 deputies, elected for a four-year term (the first State Duma  was elected for a transitional period of two years): 225 members are elected from single mandate constituencies and 225 members by proportional representation.

In the December 1999 elections, six parties made the 5% barrier for representation in the Duma. These parties are entitled to form a parliamentary fraction. In total 225 members were elected through their party lists and 216 members were elected from single mandate constituencies. The new Duma, therefore, consists of 441 members. Six factions and three deputy groups have been registered at the current Duma.

The State Duma can be dissolved by the President of the Russian Federation before its term in cases stipulated in Articles 111 and 117 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. In the event of the dissolution of the State Duma, the President of the Russian Federation shall determine the date of elections so that the newly-elected State Duma shall convene not later than four months since the time of dissolution.

Any citizen of the Russian Federation aged 21 or over who has the right to take part in elections may be elected a Deputy of the State Duma. A Deputy of the State Duma may not simultaneously be a member of the Federation Council, a deputy of other representative bodies of federal or local government or a public servant; and should work at the Duma on a permanent professional basis.

The State Duma adopts the draft laws and then passes them for review to the Federation Council within five days. A federal law is considered passed if more than half of the Federation Council deputies vote for it or if, within fourteen days, it has not been considered by the Federation Council.

In the event that the State Duma disagrees with the decision of the Federation Council, it can vote again, and if at least two-thirds of the total number of deputies vote for it, the law is considered as adopted and sent to the President for signing and publication within fourteen days.

The Jurisdiction of the State Duma:

  • granting consent to the President of the Russian Federation for the appointment of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation;
  • decisions on confidence in the government of the Russian Federation;
  • the appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation;
  • the appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Accounting Chamber and half of its staff of auditors;
  • the appointment and dismissal of the Plenipotentiary for Human Rights acting in accordance with the Federal Constitutional Law;
  • granting amnesty;
  • bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation for his impeachment. Each deputy of the State Duma, with the exception of the Speaker, deputy speakers and faction leaders, must serve on one of the 28 standing committees of the Duma. Temporary commissions can be created if needed.

The State Duma Committees (http://www.duma.gov.ru/deputats/committe.htm):

On the Election of Deputies of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (24.06.1999) (in English)
http://www.ifes.ru:8101/eng/el_laws/dleng99/dleng99.html
The unofficial translation of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation.

Presse Services Reports on the State DMA of Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://democracy.ru/english/library/laws/dumaelect_eng/index.html
Unofficial translation of the The Law regulates the process of electing members of the lower chamber of the Russian Parliament. Passed by the State Duma on June 2, 1999, approved by the Federation Council on June 9, 1999, published for the first time in «Rossiyskaya Gazeta» on July 1 and 3, 1999.

Main Provisions of the Federal Law «On the Election of Deputies of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation» (in English)
http://www.ifes.ru/english/library/comments/eng_1999-34.html


Presse Services Reports on the State DMA of Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.ln.mid.ru/bl.nsf/goseng?OpenView&Start=1&Count=50&Expand=4#4


Information Channel of the State Duma of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.akdi.ru/gd/akdi.htm


Procedures for the elections to the State Duma (in English)
http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/2568/gdsfpro2.html


The State Duma. Powers and Procedures (in English)
http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/2568/gdsfpro3.html

The article about the main powers of the State Duma and the procedures in it.

The State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation 1996 - 1999 (in Russian)
http://www.garant.ru/files/duma_htm/
Electronic Encyclopaedia provides information about the history, structure and activity of the State Duma of the Russian Federation during 1996-1999.

The State Duma (in English)
http://www.legislature.ru/fund/persons/zakhpubl/rusonrus.htm

The article about the State Duma of the Russian Federation is published on the web-site of the Foundation for the Development of Parliamentarism in Russia.

The Foundation for the Development of Parliamentarism in Russia
http://legislature.ru/fund/index.html
 (in Russian)
http://legislature.ru/fund/eng/index.html
 (in English)
Web-site of the Foundation for the Development of Parliamentarism in Russia (FDPR) which was set up in January 1994 for rendering assistance to committees and commissions of the Federal Assembly (Russian Parliament) chambers, political parties and movements, independent deputies in drafting laws and doing independent professional assessment of bills and laws.

The Federation Council

The Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (Soviet Federatzji ( http://www.council.gov.ru/ ) - the upper chamber of the Russian parliament is formed by two representatives of each sub unit of the federation  - one from the legislative and one from the executive branch and it consists of 178 members from 89 regions. Members of the Council of federation lose their status when they leave their office in the bodies of the sub unit.

The procedure for the formation of the Federation Council is established by the Federal Law of the Russian Federation "On the Formation of the Federal Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (07.08.2000)"  (http://www.100mb.ru/~grankin/docs/ru_zak002.htm).

The Federation Council has the following powers which are laid out in the Article 102         (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page4.html#P407_53073) of the Constitution of the Russian Federation:

  • approves changes of borders between the subjects of the Russian Federation
  • approves the decree of the President on the introduction of martial law
  • approves the decree of the President on the introduction of a state of emergency
  • makes decisions on the possibility of the use of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation outside the territory of the Russian Federation
  • calls elections of the President of the Russian Federation
  • impeaches the President
  • appoints judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court of Arbitration
  • appoints and dismisses the Prosecutor-General
  • appoints and dismisses the deputy Chairman of the Accounting Chamber and half of its staff of auditors
  • passes resolutions on the issues within its jurisdiction under the Constitution of the Russian Federation

Other powers regarding the personnel policy not mentioned in the Constitution, but granted to the Federation Council by federal laws include:

  • endorsement of the appointment of the members of the Presidium of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation
  • appointment of five out of the 15 members of the Central Electoral Commission of the Russian Federation
  • appointment of two representatives of the Federation Council to the National Banking Council (NBC)
  • appointment of representatives of the State Duma to the Council for Public Service resided over by the President of the Russian Federation
  • appointment of Deputy Prosecutors General (proposed by the Prosecutor General)

The Federation Council passes resolutions by a majority of votes of the total number of its members.

Federal laws regarding the questions of war and peace, status and defense of the state borders of the Russian Federation, the ratification and denouncement of international treaties, the federal budget, federal taxes and duties financial and monetary matters, credit, customs regulation, monetary emission, passed by the State Duma are subject to obligatory review by the Federation Council.

The Federation Council forms committees and commissions (http://council.gov.ru/sostav/komitets/spis_kom.htm) and together with the State Duma conducts parliamentary hearings on questions of jurisdiction.

Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (in Russian & in English)
http://www.cityline.ru/politika/e/fs/sf.html#st

This site provides information about the Federation Council of the Russian Federation, its status, powers and history.

Federation Council Information Channel of AKDI Agency (in Russian) 
http://www.akdi.ru/sf/akdi.htm

The Federation Council: Composition, Powers, Procedures (in English)
http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/2568/gdsfpro1.html

The Federation Council of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.100mb.ru/~grankin/russia/ru_sf.htm

This site contains information about the Federation Council, its leaders and representatives from the regions of the Russian Federation, committees and commissions of the Federal Council.

Elections Laws and related Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.ifes.ru/english/library/laws/ (in English)

Federal Law “On Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the Right of Citizens of the Russian Federation to Participate in a Referendum” 12.07.2002 (in Russian)
http://www.ifes.ru/library/laws/federal/bg_law_12062002/index.html
 

Foreword to the Federal law “On Basic Quarantees of Electoral Rights...” (in English)
http://www.cikrf.ru/_2_en/fz_referendum.htm
 
Commentaries to the new provisions of the law.

Federal Law “On Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the Right of Citizens of the Russian Federation to Participate in a Referendum” 12.07.2002 (in Russian)
http://www.ifes.ru/library/laws/federal/bg_law_12062002/index.html
 

Foreword to the Federal law “On Basic Quarantees of Electoral Rights...” (in English)
http://www.cikrf.ru/_2_en/fz_referendum.htm
Commentaries to the new provisions of the law.

Law “On Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the Right of Citizens of the Russian Federation to Participate in a Referendum (in English)
http://www.ifes.ru/english/library/laws/bg_law_eng/index.html
 

Unofficial translation of the the Law which applies to all elections in Russia; enacted September 30, 1997, amended March 30, 1999. This law was replaced by the Law on Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights of Citizens of the Russian Federation of 2002.


The International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) (in Russian
and in English)
http://www.ifes.ru/
The web-site of the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) contains different information, laws and legislative acts of the Russian Federation regarding the elections to the state and legislative authorities, electoral rights and the rights of citizens of the Russian Federation to participate in Referendum.

Legislative Process

Federal legislation can be initiated by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council, the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation, legislative and executive bodies of sub units of the Russian Federation, as well as by the Constitutional Court, Higher Commercial Court, and the Supreme Court of General Jurisdiction.

All draft laws are initially introduced to the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The draft laws on the introduction or abolishing of taxes, exemptions from the payment thereof, on the issue of state loans, on changes in the financial obligations of the state and other draft laws providing for expenditures covered from the federal budget can be introduced to the State Duma only with a corresponding resolution by the Government of the Russian Federation.

According to the Rules (Regiment) of the State Duma, (http://www.duma.gov.ru/reglamnt/reglamnt.htm) the proposed law normally passes three hearings (readings) before it is finally approved by the State Duma. A majority vote of the deputies of the State Duma in each of these hearings is required to adopt federal laws and amendments to laws. Federal constitutional laws require approval by three-quarters of the deputies of the upper chamber of the Parliament and by two-thirds of the lower chamber.

A federal law approved by the Sate Duma is passed to the Council of Federation for review within five days. If the Council of Federation considers a federal law and declines it, the law is returned to the State Duma. The Duma then has the option to either introduce amendments suggested by the upper chamber or by pass the need for the Council of Federation approval by a two-thirds majority vote in support of the law.

Laws of certain categories may proceed to President's desk not only if they are approved by  the Council of Federation, but also if the Council fails to take an action on the law within fourteen days after its approval by the Sate Duma.

Within five days after approval by the Council of Federation or after expiration of time for action by the Council, the federal law is sent to the President of the Russian Federation for signing and promulgation.

If the President rejects the law, the law is reconsidered by the Parliament. In order to overcome Presidential veto, both chambers of the Parliament must adopt the law by two-thirds majority. The President is then bound to sign and promulgate the law.

Federal laws take effect only after they  are signed by the President of the Russian Federation and published in the official source for federal laws newspaper "Rossiiskaya Gazeta" (http://www.rg.ru/oficial/).

All federal laws are binding  on the entire territory of the Russian Federation.

Federal constitutional laws are passed on issues specified in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. A federal constitutional law is considered adopted, if it has been approved by a majority of at least three quarters of the total number of deputies of the Federation Council and at least two thirds of the total number of deputies of the State Duma. The adopted federal constitutional law is signed by the President of the Russian Federation within fourteen days and published.

Statistics of the Legislative activity of the State Duma of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.duma.gov.ru/lawstat/index.php
This database on the official site of the State Duma covers the information about the legislative activity of the State Duma of the Russian Federation (1996 - 2001).

Russian Law Monitoring (in Russian)
http://www.rlm.ru/plan/index.shtml

The forecast and the analyses of the legislative activity of the State Duma Committees.

Analytical and statistical information about the legislative activity of the State Duma of the Russian Federation 1996-1999 (in Russian)
http://www.garant.ru/files/duma_htm/analit/index.htm

 

Executive Authorities

The federal executive branch is represented by the President and the Government of the Russian Federation.

The President  of the Russian Federation appoints key officials, including the  Prime Minister (http://www.gov.ru/main/ministry/isp-vlast47.html) - the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation who is appointed in agreement with the State Duma of the Russian Federation (Articles 110 and 111 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page5.html#P471_61633)

The Government of the Russian Federation

The Government of the Russian Federation (http://www.government.gov.ru/) consists of a Prime Minister (http://www.government.gov.ru/government/minister), Deputy Prime Ministers (http://www.government.gov.ru/government/ministers/), Federal ministers, State Committees, Federal Commissions, Federal Services, Federal Supervision Departments, Federal Agencies, and Federal Inspections. Some of these bodies report to the Government while other report directly to the President of the Russian Federation. The work of the Government of the Russian Federation is regulated by federal constitutional law.

Articles 112 and 113 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page5.html#P471_61633) state that the Prime Minister (the Chairman) of the Government of the Russian Federation:

  • submits to the President of the Russian Federation proposals on the structure of the federal organs of executive power
  • proposes to the President of the Russian Federation candidacies for the posts of Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers.
  • in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws, and edicts of the President of the Russian Federation, defines the basic guidelines for the activity of the Government of the Russian Federation and organizes its work

The Prime Minister, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and decrees of the President of the Russian Federation determines the guidelines of the work of the Government of the Russian Federation and organizes its work.

The Government of the Russian Federation has the following powers which are laid out in the Article 114 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page5.html#P476_62417):

  • to develop and to present the federal budget to the State Duma, ensure its implementation, and reports on the latter to the State Duma
  • to ensure the conduct of a unified financial, credit, and monetary policy, policy in the areas of culture, science, education, health care, social security, and ecology
  • to undertake the administration of federal property, measures to ensure the defense of the nation, state security, the conduct of foreign policy, measures to ensure the lawfulness, rights, and freedoms of citizens, the protection of property and public order, and crime prevention
  • to coordinate the activities of federal executive authorities on economic reform, reform of the social sector, housing and construction policy, reform of the scientific sphere and branches of infrastructure, national regional policy for cooperation with member states of the CIS, law enforcement activities
  • to exercise other authority placed upon it by federal laws and presidential decrees

On the basis of and pursuant to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and normative decrees of the President of the Russian Federation the Government of the Russian Federation issues decrees and orders and ensures their implementation thereof.

The decrees and orders of the Government of the Russian Federation are binding throughout the Russian Federation.

The decrees and executive orders of the Government of the Russian Federation may be repealed by the President of the Russian Federation if they contravene the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and the decrees of the President of the Russian Federation.

Federal Constitutional Law N 2-FKZ "On the Government of the Russian Federation" 17.12.1997 (in Russian) http://www.government.gov.ru/prav/index.html?st_id=7317&he_id=5

Government of the Russian Federation (in Russian and in English)
http://www.ln.mid.ru/bl.nsf/goseng?OpenView&Start=1&Count=50&Expand=3#3
The official site of the Russian Government comprises three sections: "Office of the Prime Minister", "Federal Government Agencies and Departments" and "The Press Center". The site reference sections provide biographies of the Prime Minister, Cabinet Members and federal executive leaders. The Ministries' pages contain statutes of federal executive bodies, provide contact details and links to Web-sites of Ministries and Departments. Daily news updates under the headings of "Official Chronicle" and "Press Releases" are the most popular pages of the site. These pages offer exclusive news earlier than information agencies and TV.

Russian Government Internet Network (in Russian)
http://www.gov.ru
The Web-site of the Russian Federation administrative bodies. Here you can find official information and documents from the Web-pages of the Russian President, Security Council as well as references to the Web-pages of other official Web-sites. Some of the documents you'll find in English, but some are only in Russian.

Prime Minister's (Kasyanov M.) address to State Duma before confirmation (in English)
http://www.government.gov.ru/government/minister/kas1805.html

Government Information Departments Reports (in English)
http://www.ln.mid.ru/website/bl.nsf/goseng?OpenView&Start=1&Count=50&Expand=3#3

Government on the WWW (in Russian)
http://gosorgan.amursk.ru/
This site contains a lot of links to the Russian  government, federal ministries, services and state committees, to the executive authorities if federal subjects of the Russian Federation, to the parties, political and non-governmental organizations.

Reference Directory of the Official Authorities of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://geocities.com/wervov/

This directory contains reference information about the Russian state authorities: the President of the Russian Federation and his Administration, about the Government, ministries, federal services and state committees.

State Authorities in Russia (in Russian)
http://www.mgi.ru/regards.htm
In this guide you will find the links to the sites of the Russian state authorities: government, ministries, federal services and state committees.

State an Legislative Authorities of the Russian Federation: Telephone Directory (in Russian)
http://www.100mb.ru/~grankin/russia/index.htm
In this virtual Telephone Directory you can find not only the addresses, phone's numbers of the President of the Russian Federation, his Administration, Ministries, federal services and committees, state and legislative authorities but also the biographies of Russian statesmen and politicians, information about the elections to the State Duma, legal documents and the publications regarding the main political events in Russia during 1999-2000.

Action Plan of the Russian Government of the Russian Federation in the Area of Social Policy and Economic Modernization for the Years 2000 - 2001 (in English)
http://www.csr.ru/english/action.html

Federal Organs of the Executive Authority

The creation of federal organs of executive authority, their reorganization and liquidation is carried out by the President of the Russian Federation at the suggestion of the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation.

The federal executive branch consists of:

Federal services, Russian agencies and Federal Directorates perform special functions within their established jurisdictions - executive, regulatory, monitoring and the others.

The Structure of the Federal Executive Branch of the Russian Federation (according to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation 17.08.1999) (in English)
http://ngo.org.ru/ngoss/get/id12831.html

Federal Ministries (in Russian and in English)
http://www.government.ru/institutions/ministries/index.html

Information about all the federal ministries of the Russian Federation is published on the official site of the Government of the Russian Federation.

Presse Services Reports of the Federal Ministries and Departments (in English)
http://www.ln.mid.ru/bl.nsf/goseng?OpenView&Start=1&Count=50&Expand=5#5

Official Russian Government Sites
http://www.therussiasite.org/gov/gov.html

The following are links to official government sites. Some of these sites have pages in English, but generally the sites in Russian are updated more frequently and contain more information.

Federal Ministries of the Russian Federation

The Ministry of Internal Affairs (The Ministry of Interior) (in Russian)
http://www.mvd.ru/

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Russian, in English, in French, in German and in Spanish)
http://www.minjust.ru/

The Ministry of Justice (in Russian)
http://www.scli.ru/

The Ministry of Defense (in Russian)
http://www.mil.ru/

The Ministry for the Federation and Ethnic Matters (in Russian)
http://www.pravitelstvo.gov.ru/institutions/ministries/minfed.html

The Ministry of Finance (in Russian & in English)
http://www.minfin.ru/
  There are two sections in English: “Information of Fiscal Sector presented by Economic Expert Group” and “External Debt of the Russian Federation”.

The Ministry of State Property (in Russian)
http://www.maprf.ru/
The
English version of this site is under construction.

The Ministry of Press, TV and Radio Broadcasting and Mass Media (in Russian)
http://www.mptr.ru/

The Ministry for Antimonopoly Policy and Business Support (in Russian)
http://www.maprf.ru/
The
English version of this site is under construction.

The Ministry of Taxation (in Russian & in English)
http://www.nalog.ru/

There is special section “Legal information” on the site where you will find english versions of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation (part 1 and part 2) and several Federal Laws.

The Ministry for Revenues (in Russian)
http://www.nalog.ru/

The Ministry for Civil Defense,  Emergencies and Disaster Management (in Russian)
http://www.emercom.gov.ru/

The Ministry of Energy (in Russian)
http://www.mte.gov.ru/

The Ministry for Atomic Energy (in Russian and in English)
http://www.minatom.ru/

The Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Russian Federation (in Russian and in English)
Information about the  Ministry of Agriculture and Food of Russian Federation, its structure and activity is published on the server of the  Agrarian Russian Information System (http://www.aris.ru/).  On this server you will find the official and legal documents; branch, price, commercial and statistical information; information about the agriculture reform in Russia and international projects; information about the international investments in the Agri-Industrial Complex, conferences and exhibitions different databases; links to the Russian and foreign Internet resources.

The Ministry of Labour and Social Development (in Russian)
http://www.mintrud.ru/

The Ministry of Industry, Science and Technology (in Russian)
http://mp.it-group.ru/

The Ministry of Education (in Russian)
http://www.ed.gov.ru/

http://db.informika.ru/ic/merf/  (in English)
Information about the structure of the Administration of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation and institutions subordinated to the Ministry of General and Professional Education, Telephone Directory of the Ministry are placed on the site “International Cooperation.”

The Ministry of Natural Resources (in Russian)
http://www.mnr.gov.ru/

The Ministry of Health (in Russian)
http://www.minzdrav-rf.ru/

Ministry for Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism (in Russian)
http://www.infosport.ru/minsport/str_poloj.htm

The Ministry of Economic Development and Trade (in Russian)
http://www.economy.gov.ru/

The Ministry of Communications (in Russian)
http://www.mps.ru/

The Ministry of Transport (in Russian)
http://www.mintrans.ru/

The Ministry of Culture (in Russian)
http://www.mincult.ru/

The Ministry of Communication and Information (in Russian)
http://www.minsvyaz.ru

State Committees of the Russian Federation

State Customs Committee (in Russian and in English)
http://www.customs.ru/ru/index.xpml

State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics (in Russian and in English)
http://www.gks.ru/

State Committee for Standardization and Metrology (in Russian and in English)
http://www.gost.ru/sls/gost.nsf/

State Committee of the Russian Federation for Physical Culture and Sport (in Russian)
http://www.goskomsport.ru/

State Committee for Building and Housing-Municipal Complex (in Russian)
http://www.gosstroy.gov.ru/

State Committee for Fishing (in Russian)
http://www.government.gov.ru/institutions/ministries/details.html?he_id=231

Federal Commissions of the Russian Federation

The Federal Commission for the Securities Market (in Russian and in English)
http://www.fedcom.ru/fcsm/

State Technical Commission (in Russian)
http://www.infotecs.ru/gtc/

State Technical Commission (in English)
http://www.agentura.ru/english/dosie/gosteh/

Federal Energetics Commission (in Russian and in English)
http://www.fecrf.ru/

Federal Services of the Russian Federation

Federal Land Cadastre Service (in Russian and in English)
http://www.goscomzem.ru/

Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (in Russian and in English)
http://www.mecom.ru/roshydro/pub/index.htm

Federal Security Service (FSB) (in Russian)
http://www.fsb.ru/

State Courier Service (in Russian)
http://www.gfs.ru/

Federal Archives Service (in Russian)
http://www.rusarchives.ru/branch/rosarchive/

Federal Geodetic and Mapping Service (in Russian)
http://www.roskart.ru/

Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) (in Russian)
http://svr.gov.ru/

Federal Service of the Railway Forces (in Russian)
http://www.fsgv.ru/

Federal Service of Tax Policy (in Russian)
http://www.pravitelstvo.gov.ru/institutions/services/fsnp.html

About Federal Service of Tax Policy (in English)
http://www.agentura.ru/english/dosie/fsnp/

Federal Service for Financial Recovery and Bankruptcy (in Russian)
http://www.fsforus.ru/

Federal Protective Service (in Russian)
http://www.government.gov.ru/institutions/ministries/details.html?he_id=248

About Federal Protective Service (in English)
http://www.agentura.ru/english/dosie/fso/

Federal Border Service (in Russian)
http://www.fps.ru/

Federal Service of Special Building (in Russian)
http://www.spetsstroy.ru/

Russian Agencies of the Russian Federation

Russian Control System Agency (in Russian and in English)
http://www.pacy.ru/eng/eindex.php3

Russian Aviation and Space Agency (in Russian & in English)
http://www.rosaviakosmos.ru/

Russian Munitions Agency (in Russian & in English)
http://www.munition.ru/

Russian Agency for Usual Arms (in Russian)
http://www.fagci.ru/

Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information (FAPSI) (in Russian)
http://www.government.ru/institutions/agencies/fapsi.html

Russian Control Systems Agency (in Russian, in English, in French, in Spanish, in German)
http://www.government.ru/institutions/ministries/details.html?he_id=254

Russian Agency for Ship Building (in Russian)
http://www.rossud.ru/

Russian Agency for Patent and Trademarks (Rospatent) (in Russian & in English)
http://www.rupto.ru/

Russian Agency for State Reserves (in Russian)
http://www.government.gov.ru/institutions/ministries/details.html?he_id=257

Federal Supervision Committees

Federal Committee for Nuclear Safety and Radiation (in Russian)
http://www.gan.ru/

Federal Committee for Mining and Industrial Supervision (in Russian)
http://www.gosnadzor.ru/

Governmental Working Center for Economic Reform (in Russian)
http://www.government.gov.ru/institutions/ministries/details.html?he_id=518

Russian International Nuclear Safety Center of the Ministry for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (in Russian and in English)
http://www.insc.ru/

International Nuclear Safety Center of Russian MINATOM (RMINSC) was founded in accordance with a Joint Declaration on Establishing International Nuclear Safety Centers, adopted in January 1996, in Washington during the Sixth Session of the Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission on economical and technological cooperation. The Russian and U.S. International Centers are under the general direction of the RF Minister for Atomic Energy and the US Secretary of Energy, respectively.

Russian Federal Property Fund (in Russian and in English)
http://www.dol.ru/users/rffi/fund.htm

The Russian Federal Property Fund (RFPF) was established in February 1992 by the Order of the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation and functions in accordance with the Decree of the RF President of December 17, 1993. The RFPF has the status of a Specialized Financial Institution of the Government and is the exclusive seller of Federal assets.

Judicial System of the Russian Federation

General Provisions

The existing judicial system of the Russian Federation was formed and is being developed as a result of a judicial reform carried out in Russia from the beginning of the 90s with the purpose to create and maintain the judicial power in the state mechanism as an independent branch of power, free from political and ideological bias, independent in its activities from the executive and legislative branches of power.

The judiciary system of the Russian Federation is established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law. Independent, competent law court is an important component of a democratic state based on a rule of law. Judiciary power is exercised to constitutional, civil, administrative and criminal process.

The Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993 became the main legal basis for the introduction of the judicial reform. The structure of the judicial system of the Russian Federation and the sphere of activities of its various parts are determined by the Article 118 of the Constitution (http://nadzor.vvsu.ru/English/legislation/show_article.asp?id=259) and federal constitutional laws.

Judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation are appointed by the Federation Council following nomination by the President of the Russian Federation.

Judges of other federal courts are appointed by the President of the Russian Federation in accordance with procedures established by federal law.

The powers, and procedure of the formation and activities of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation and other federal courts are established by federal constitutional law.

The judicial system of the Russian Federation consists of:

  • The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (http://ks.rfnet.ru/) and constitutional courts of the republics and other subjects of the Russian Federation
  • Four-tiered system of courts of general jurisdiction : the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (http://www.supcourt.ru/), supreme courts of the republics, krai and oblast courts, courts of cities of federal significance, military and specialized courts; three-tiered system of the military courts (http://www.supcourt.ru/mj/index.htm) is an integral part of it .
  • three-level system of arbitration courts : the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation (http://www.arbitr.ru/), federal okrug courts and arbitration courts of federal subjects.

Judges are independent and are obeyed only the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal law.

A court of law, having established the illegality of an act of government or any other body, are passed a ruling in accordance with law.

All trials in all law courts are opened. The hearing of a case can be in camera in cases provided by the federal law.

Hearing of criminal cases in law courts in absentia are not allowed except the cases provided for by the federal law.

Law courts are financed only out of the federal budget and financing are ensured full and independent administration of justice in accordance with federal law.

Justices of the Peace (http://www.hro.org/docs/rlex/mirsud.htm) are judges of the subjects of the Russian Federation and form an integral part of the system of courts of general jurisdiction.

The re-establishment of the institute of Justices of the Peace in Russia in 2000 is an important step in the course of development of the judicial and legal reform and provides for more operative and accessible judicial protection for the citizens of the country.

The law entrusts the Justices of the Peace with functions and duties equal for all the judges of Russia: to exercise justice observing precisely and strictly the requirements of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, generally recognized rules, norms and principles of the international law and international agreements concluded or joined by the Russian Federation.

The Justices of the Peace are included into the structure of general jurisdiction courts and participate in the work of its bodies.

Federal Constitutional Law “On Judicial System of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.supcourt.ru/EN/jsystem.htm

On the Court System in the Russian Federation (in English)
http://nadzor.vvsu.ru/English/legislation/show_law.asp?id=6

The text of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Court System in the Russian Federation" (31.12.1996) .

Russia's Judiciary (in English)
http://www.supcourt.ru/EN/rj.htm

Judicial  System of  the  Russian Federation and the  Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.supcourt.ru/EN/frames.htm

Russia's Three Supreme Courts (in English)
http://www.therussiasite.org/legal/supremecourts.html

About Russia’s court system.

Federal Constitutional Law «On Military Courts of the Russian Federation” (in English)
http://www.therussiasite.org/legal/laws/militarycourtslaw.html


The Judiciary Reform in Russia (in English)
http://www.msps.ru/eng/libr/rr5/8.html


The Current Situation with the Judicial Reform in Russia (in English)
http://ksgnotes1.harvard.edu/BCSIA/Library.nsf/pubs/Pashin


Legal Agencies of the Executive Branch (in English)
http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~jbonine/branch.html

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation  (http://ks.rfnet.ru/) is the judicial body of constitutional review, autonomously and independently exercising judicial authority by means of constitutional judicial proceedings.

The powers, procedures for the formation and activity of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation are determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and by the Federal Constitutional Law.

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation consists of 19 judges appointed by the Federation Council upon nomination made by the President of the Russian Federation.

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation may implement its activity provided that it is composed of no fewer than three quarters of the total number of Judges. The powers of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation are of unlimited duration.

The fundamental principles of activity of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation are independence, collegiality, publicity, adversarial nature of proceedings and equality of parties.

The Article 125 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page6.html#P521_67476) states that  the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on request by the President of the Russian Federation, the State Duma, one-fifth of the members of the Federation Council or deputies of the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, bodies of legislative and executive power of subjects of the Russian Federation resolves cases about compliance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation of :

  • federal laws, normative acts of the President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council, the State Duma and the Government of the Russian Federation
  • republican constitutions, charters, as well as laws and other normative acts of subjects of the Russian Federation published on issues pertaining to the jurisdiction of bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and joint jurisdiction of bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation
  • agreements between bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation, agreements between bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation
  • international agreements of the Russian Federation that have not entered into force.

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation  resolves disputes over jurisdiction:

  • between the federal state bodies
  • between state bodies of the Russian Federation and state bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation
  • between supreme state bodies of subjects of the Russian Federation

Constitutional Court: Development and activity (in English)
http://ks.rfnet.ru/english/booklet.htm

The article about the development, activity, justices and staff of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

Federal Constitutional  Law on the  Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (12.07.1994) (in English)
http://ks.rfnet.ru/english/ksengl.htm
(in English)
http://ks.rfnet.ru/Texts/zak_new.htm (in Russian)

Selected Decisions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://ks.rfnet.ru/english/codicese.htm

There are summaries of the most important decisions passed by the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. As such, the summaries of the decisions have been prepared by the Court itself for the "Bulletin on Constitutional Case-Law" which is regularly published in English and French by the European Commission for Democracy through Law (the Venice Commission).

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (http://www.supcourt.ru/) is the supreme judicial body for civil, criminal, administrative and other cases under the jurisdiction of courts of general jurisdiction, carries out judicial supervision over their activities according to the federal law-envisaged procedural forms and provides clarifications on the issues of court proceedings (Article 126 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page6.html#P536_70280).

The Supreme Court  of the Russian Federation heads the judicial system of general jurisdiction, representing a supreme tier of this system and oversees the activities of courts, including military and specialized federal courts, as the legal instance directly superior to the supreme courts of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal significance, autonomous oblast, autonomous okrug, and military courts.

The Supreme Court of Russian Federation has the right of the legislative initiative. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation acts as a court of first instance for cases of special importance or special public interest when it accepts them for consideration according to the legislation. The law determines a category of cases which are included in the sphere of activities of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation as a court of first instance.

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is a cassation instance in relation to the federal courts of general jurisdiction of republics or oblast.

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation supervises legality, validity and substantiality of sentences and other decisions of courts of lower level.

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is composed of its Chairman, first deputy and deputies of the Chairman, the justices of the Court and People’s assessors.

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation has the following structure http://www.supcourt.ru/1/structure/index.htm:

  • the Plenum of the Supreme Court
  • the Presidium of the Supreme Court
  • Judicial chambers ( Chamber on Civil Cases, Chamber on Criminal Cases and Military Chamber)

 The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is assisted in exercising its powers by several offices, departments and other structural units.

Bulletin of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (1995 - 2002) (in Russian)
http://www.supcourt.ru/bullettin/index.htm

The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation

The Supreme  Arbitration (Commercial) Court  (http://www.arbitr.ru/eng/index.htm) is the highest judiciary body resolving economic disputes and other cases considered by arbitration courts, it is carried out judicial supervision over their activity in line with federal legal procedures and is offered explanations on questions of judiciary practice (Article 127 of the Constitution of the RF http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page6.html#P538_70620).

The activity of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is regulated by the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Arbitration Courts in the Russian Federation" (05.04.1995) (http://www.arbitr.ru/as/doc/fkzn1/part1.htm) and the Arbitration Procedural Code (05.04.1995) (http://www.internet-law.ru/law/kodeks/apk.htm), as well as the Federal constitutional law «On the judicial system of the Russian Federation».

The arbitration courts are specialized courts for settling property and commercial disputes between enterprises. They as well consider claims of businessmen to proclaim acts of state bodies which infringe their rights and violate their lawful interests null an void. These are tax, land and other disputes arising from administrative, financial and other legal relations. The arbitration courts consider cases with foreign parties participation.

The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation acts as court of first instance where specific categories of cases are concerned, including the claims of invalidity of non-normative acts endorsed by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council and the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as economic disputes between the Russian Federation and its constituent parts or between constituent parts of the Russian Federation.

The most important task is to insure the uniform understanding and implementation of the legislation in the sphere of economic relations by all arbitration courts. The fulfillment of this task is exercised by means of studying and generalizing of the judicial practice and working out of explanations and interpretation of the legal acts by the Plenum or by the Presidium of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation.

For the purpose of ensuring full and independent administration of justice in compliance with federal laws, the financing of the system of arbitration courts is provided from the resources of the federal budget. A separate line in the federal budget provides for the spending on the

The monthly "Vestnik Vysshego Arbitrazhnogo Suda Rossijskoi Federatsii" (The Herald of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, http://www.vestnik-vas.ru/) is the official edition of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation.  

The System of Arbitration Courts in the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.arbitr.ru/eng/sysac.htm

Federal Constitutional Law “On Arbitration Courts in the Russian Federation”
http://arbitr.spb.ru/cgi-bin/eng/docview.pl?st=9
 (in English)
http://www.arbitr.ru/as/doc/fkzn1/part1.htm
 
(in Russian)

Historical Background (in English)
http://www.arbitr.ru/eng/sysac.htm

The history of the commercial and arbitration courts in Russia.

Jurisdictional Competition between State Arbitration Courts of the Russian Federation and Arbitration Tribunals (in English)
http://www.yust.ru/Publications/konkur_en.htm

Database of the Arbitration practice (in Russian)
http://arbitr.park.ru/default.asp?page=doc_search_form

This database of the Garant Legal Information system contains the texts of the documents of the arbitration practice.

Moscow Arbitration Court (in Russian)
http://www.msk.arbitr.ru/

Arbitration Court of the North-Western Federation District (in Russian)
http://www.fas.spb.ru/

Office of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation

The Prosecutor's Office of Russian Federation is the single centralized structure for supervision over maintenance of the laws and human rights and for criminal prosecution. The Office of the Prosecutor General forms a single centralized system in which all lower officers are subordinate to those which stand aboce them and to the Prosecutor General of the the Russian federation.

Article 129 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page6.html#P544_71705) states that the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation is appointed to his post and relieved from the post by the Federation Council on nomination by the President of the Russian Federation.

Prosecutors of subjects of the Russian Federation are appointed by the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation after consultations with its subjects. Other prosecutors are appointed by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation.

The powers, organization and working procedure for the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation are determined by federal law.

Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation - Vladimir Ustinov (acting Prosecutor General since Summer, 1999; appointed on May, 17, 2000 for 5-years term).

Federal Law "On the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" (17.11.1995) (in Russian)
http://www.hro.org/docs/rlex/proc/ (in Russian)
http://nadzor.vvsu.ru/English/legislation/show_law.asp?id=3 (in English)

Office on the Prosecutor: legal documents and activity (in Russian)
http://zakon.kuban.ru/sayt/prokur.shtml

Prosecutor's Office: Problems of Development (in English)
http://nadzor.vvsu.ru/English/publications/mytsykov.asp

Official Publication of Laws, Legal Acts and Documents of State, Legislative, Executive Authorities and Courts

The Constitution of the Russian Federation provides that unpublished new laws shall not be applied. On the federal level, publication is regulated by the Law of the Russian Federation N 5-FZ "On the Procedure of Publication and entering into force Federal Constitutional Laws, Federal Laws, Acts passed by the Chambers of the Federal Assembly" (http://www.hro.org/docs/rlex/enact.htm#zakon), dated 14 June 1994 (ed. 22.10.1999).

The official sources for the publication of acts adopted by the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, acts of the President and the Government and the decisions of the Constitutional Court:

- "Rossiiskaya Gazeta" http://www.rg.ru/
(in Russian)

- Parliamentary Newspaper http://www.pnp.ru/pg_eng/
  (in Russian and in English)

- "Sobranie Zakonodatelstva Rossiiskoi Federatcii” (in Russian) http://www.systema.ru/opi/szrf.asp


If the federal law itself does not contain an effective date, it will become effective within 10 days after publication in an official source.

Legal acts other than laws shall be published if they contain rules of law that affect freedoms, rights and duties of a human and a citizen. For the acts of the President and the Government this constitutional provision is implemented by the President Decree N 763 "On the procedure for the publication and the effective date of the Acts of President of Russia and the Government of Russia" (http://jedi.kosnet.ru/sorm/lawdocs/763.html) of May 23, 1996.

“Bulleten’ normativnikh actov federal’nih organov ispolnitel’noy vlasty” (Bulletin of the normative acts of the federal executive bodies) (http://www.systema.ru/opi/bna.asp) is the official source for the publication of acts adopted by the fegeral executive bodies.

Similar regulations may be found now in the federal subjects of the Russian Federation. The newspaper "Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti" (http://www.spbvedomosti.ru/
) (in Russian and in English) and monthly "Vestnik Administracii Sankt-Peterburga" are designated to be the official sources of the acts of the Mayor's office in Saint-Petersburg according to the Governer Order 376-r (http://www.kadis.ru/texts/pattern_texts1.html?/texts/s_20896) of November 10, 1996. If not provided otherwise, these acts are effective on the date of publication.

Bulletin of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation ("Biulleten' Verkhovnogo Suda RF") 1995 – 2002 (in Russian)
http://www.supcourt.ru/bullettin/
 
The official edition of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.

The Herald of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation ("Vestnik Vysshego Arbitrahnogo Suda Rossijskoi Federatsii") 1998 – 2002 (in Russian)
http://www.vestnik-vas.ru/
 
Monthly official edition of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation.

Tax Bulletin (Nalogoviy Vestnik) - (in Russian)
http://www.nalvest.com/


Most of legal documents of the Russian Federation which are included into the different – state & commercial – legal reference systems, databases and directories have the reference information about the sources of the official publication.

Other printed publications of law-related information may be found in the
following periodicals:

Economy & Life (in Russian)
http://www.ekonomika.ru/default.htm
 

“Economy & Life”(«Economica i Zhizn») – weekly journal which has an archive of back issues on CD-ROM and which is included into several legal systems.

Financial Newspaper (in Russian)
http://www.com2com.ru/fingaz/

“Financial Newspaper” ("Finansovaja Gazeta”) - weekly newspaper covering financial issues.

State And the Law (in Russian)
http://www.igpran.ru/rus/magazine/index.htm

“State And the Law” ("Gosudarstvo I Pravo") - monthly published primarily theoretical legal journal (1997 – 2002).

Economy And the Law (in Russian)
http://www.hozpravo.ru/

Economy And the Law ("Khoziaistvo I Pravo") - monthly published theoretical-practical journal (1995 – 2002 ) discussing economic and legal issues.

Jurisprudence (in Russian & in English)
http://pravoved.jurfak.spb.ru/

“Jurisprudence” ("Pravovedenie") - bi-monthly magazine associated with the Law Faculty of St. Petersburg State University.

Space of Law (in Russian)
http://www.mirprava.ru/default.asp?wci=Magazine&c_no=192

Section “Magazines” of the Web-portal “Space of Law” (“Mir Prava”) allows to find the articles in 34 law-related Russian journals with the help of search system.

Federal Jurisdiction and Jurisdiction of the Federal Subjects of the Russian Federaion

Jurisdiction

Not all legislation is adopted in the Russian Federation at the federal level. 

Article 76 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page3.html#P298_37882) states that outside of the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation, the republics, territories, regions, federal cities, autonomous regions and autonomous areas shall establish their own legal regimes, including the adoption of legislation and other regulations.

On issues within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation federal constitutional laws and federal laws are adopted having direct effect throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.

On matters within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation federal laws are issued and in accordance with them laws and other regulatory legal acts of the subjects of the Russian Federation are adopted. Federal laws may not contravene federal constitutional laws.

Federal Jurisdiction

The Article 71 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page3.html#P251_31820) states that the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation is included:

  • adoption and amendment of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws and supervision of compliance with them;
  • the federal structure and territory of the Russian Federation;
  • regulation and protection of the rights and liberties of the individual and citizen; citizenship of the Russian Federation; and regulation and protection of the rights of national minorities;
  • establishment of a system of federal bodies of legislative, executive, and judicial power; procedures for the organization and activities thereof; formation of federal bodies of state power; and federal and state property and management thereof;
  • determining the basic principles of federal policy and federal programs in the field of national structure, the economy, the environment, and the social, cultural, and national development of the Russian Federation;
  • establishment of the legal framework for a single market; financial, monetary, credit, and customs regulation; issuance of money and guidelines for price policy; and federal economic services, including federal banks;
  • the federal budget; federal taxes and levies; and federal funds for regional development;
  • federal power grids, nuclear energy, and fissionable materials; federal transportation, railways, information, and communications; and space activities;
  • foreign policy and international relations of the Russian Federation, international treaties of the Russian Federation, questions of war and peace;
  • foreign trade relations of the Russian Federation;
  • defense and security; defense production; determining procedures for the sale and purchase of arms, ammunition, military hardware, and other equipment; production of fissionable materials, toxic substances, and narcotics and procedures for the use thereof;
  • defining the status and protection of the national border, territorial waters, air space, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of the Russian Federation;
  • law courts; procuratura; criminal, criminal-procedure and penitentiary legislation; amnesty and pardon; civil, civil-procedure, and arbitration procedure legislation; and legal regulation of intellectual property;
  • federal conflict of laws rules;
  • meteorological service; standards, models, the metric system, and time measurement; geodesy and cartography; names of geographical objects; official statistics and accounting;
  • state decorations and honorary titles of the Russian Federation;
  • federal state service.

Joint Jurisdiction

On matters of joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation, federal laws must be issued and, in accordance with them, the legislation and other regulation of the subjects of the Russian Federation shall be adopted. If the law of a local jurisdiction fails to comply with the federal statute, it shall not be applied.

The Article 72 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page3.html#P271_34309) states that the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation is included:

  • ensuring compliance of the constitutions and laws of the republics, charters, laws, and other regulations of the territories, regions, federal cities, autonomous regions, and autonomous areas with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws;
  • protection of the rights and freedoms of the individual and citizen; protection of the rights of ethnic minorities; maintenance of the rule of law and public order, public safety; and border zone regulation;
  • issues of the possession, use, and management of land, mineral resources, water, and other natural resources;
  • allocation of state property;
  • management of natural resources, protection of the environment and ecological safety; specially protected natural reserves; and protection of historical and cultural monuments;
  • general questions of upbringing, education, science, culture, physical culture and sports;
  • coordination of health issues, protection of the family, motherhood, fatherhood, and childhood; and social protection including social security;
  • implementing measures to combat catastrophes, natural disasters, epidemics, and eliminating the consequences thereof;
  • establishment of general guidelines for taxation and levies in the Russian Federation;
  • administrative, administrative-procedure, labor, family, housing, land, water, and forestry legislation and legislation on the natural resources and environmental protection;
  • personnel of the judiciary and law-enforcement agencies; the bar; and notaries;
  • protection of the original environment and traditional way of life of small ethnic communities;
  • establishment of general guidelines for the organization of a system of agencies of state power and local self-government;
  • coordination of the international and external economic relations of the subjects of the Russian Federation, and compliance with the international treaties of the Russian Federation.

The provisions of this Article is equally applied to the republics, territories, regions, federal cities, autonomous regions and autonomous areas.

Jurisdiction of the Federal Subjects

The jurisdiction of the Russian Federation is very wide but there are still many important matters left to the subjects of the federation.

The Article 73 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page3.html#P288_36427) states that outside of the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation on issues within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation, the subjects of the Russian Federation is  exercised the entire spectrum of state power.

The subjects of the Russian Federation have their own jurisdiction and are competent to enact legislation.  The subjects have full and exclusive jurisdiction over all issues except those listed as matters of federal or joint competence.

Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation

State, Legislative & Executive Authorities

The Russian Federation consists of republics, territories, regions, federal cities, an autonomous region and autonomous areas, which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation. There are 89 federal subjects (http://www.extech.ru/english/s_e/region/subjects/index.htm) of the Russian Federation (Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page3.html#P223_27048): 21 autonomous republics, 6 krais (provinces), 49 oblast (regions), two cities of federal status (Moscow and Saint-Petersburg), one autonomous oblast and 10 autonomous okrugs (districts), each endowed with equal rights.

The federated structure of the Russian Federation is based on its state integrity, the uniform system of state power, delimitation of scopes of authority and powers between the bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and the bodies of state power of the subjects of the Russian Federation, equality and self-determination of the peoples in the Russian Federation.

All the subjects of the Russian Federation are equal among themselves in relations with the Federal bodies of state power.

The status of a republic is defined in the Federal Constitution and the Constitution of the respective republic. The status of a territory, region, a Federal city, the autonomous region and an autonomous area is set out in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and in the Statute of the respective territory, region, Federal city, autonomous region and autonomous area, which is adopted by the legislative (representative) power body of the respective Federation member.

The republic has its own constitution and legislation. A territory, region, federal city, autonomous region and autonomous have its own charter and legislation

State power in the subjects of the Russian Federation is exercised by the organs of state authority formed by them.

The scopes of authority and powers of the bodies of state authority of the Russian Federation and the bodies of state authority of the subjects of the Russian Federation are delimited under this Constitution of the Russian Federation, Federal and other Treaties on the delimitation of scopes of authority and powers.

The Article 77 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page3.html#P304_39320) states that the system of state power bodies of the republics, territories, regions, federal cities, the autonomous region, autonomous areas is established by the subjects of the Russian Federation independently in accordance with the basic principles of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation and general principles of the organization of legislative and executive bodies of power as envisaged by the federal law.

The state structure, legal status of subjects of the federation, and relations between them and the Federation are regulated by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Federative agreement.

Outside the framework of power within the terms of reference of the Federal authorities and within the joint competence of Federal authorities and the power bodies in the Federation members, the member-republics, territories, regions, Federal cities, the autonomous region and autonomous areas exercise their own legislative regulation, including lawmaking and passage of any other legislative acts.

Under arrangements with the executive bodies in the Federation members, the Federation members, the Federal executive authorities may delegate part of their powers to the latter.

The Article 76 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation (http://www.democracy.ru/english/library/laws/constitution_eng/page3.html#P298_37882) states that  "outside of the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation republics, territories, regions, federal cities, autonomous regions and autonomous areas shall effect their own legal regulation, including the adoption of laws and other regulatory legal acts."

Legal documents of the federal subjects passed on questions of joint jurisdiction cannot contravene federal constitutional and federal laws, presidential decrees or resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation.

Of the 89 members of the Russian Federation the 21 republics are each administered by a President - the head of the executive organ of authority in a republic.

The remaining federal subjects of the Russian Federation - krai, oblast, city of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrug - are governed by local administration (government), the head (governor) of which is the highest official in the territory.

Within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation on issues within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation the federal bodies of executive power and bodies of executive power of the subjects of the Russian Federation  form the single system of executive power in the Russian Federation.

To exercise their powers, the federal bodies of executive power may set up their own territorial structures and appoint respective officials. By agreement with organs of executive power of the subjects of the Russian Federation, the federal organs of executive power may delegate to them part of their powers provided this does not contravene the Constitution of the Russian Federation or federal laws.

Economic Regions and Subjects of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.fccland.ru/english/map-eco.htm

Interactive map of the regions and subjects of the Russian Federation on the Federal Land Cadastre Service's server.

Federative System of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/

Interactive map, official and address information of all federal districts and regions of the Russian Federation.

Autonomous Areas in Russia (map) (in English)
http://www.russianet.ru/~oldrn/politics/maps/autonomous_areas.jpg


Russia: Administrative Divisions (map) (in English)
http://www.russianet.ru/~oldrn/politics/maps/admin_division.jpg

Russia: Regions (in Russian) 
http://www.regions.ru/
This site provides information about the subjects of the Russian Federation, cities of the subjects, regional news and legislation.

Regional Governments (in English)
http://www.ticketsofrussia.ru/russia/gov/regional.html

Links to the sites of the regional Governments of the Russian Federation.

Regional legislation of the Subjects of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.regions.ru/laws/index.html
Legal databases of republics, krais and autonomous oblasts of the Russian Federation contains constitutions and some of the regional laws and decrees.

Bank of Legal Acts of subjects of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/Default.asp

Regional Legal Databases of the Bank of Legal Acts of Scientific-Technical Legal Center “SYSTEMA” of the Federal Agency of Governmental Communication and Information of the Russian Federation. Free of charge.

Parliaments of subjects of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.legislature.ru/regions/regions.html

Catalogue of the official sites of the Parliaments of subjects of the Russian Federation.

Constitutions and Regulations of subjects of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.legislature.ru/regconst.html


Local Government in Russian in the Context of Presiden Putin’s Policy (in English)
http://www.msps.ru/eng/libr/rr5/7.html

The article about the relationship between local government and state administration in the Russian Federation.

Heads of the Executive Organ of Authority of subjects of the Russian Federation (in Russian)
http://www.100mb.ru/~grankin/archiv/reg_isp.htm
List of the Presidents and the Governors of all federal subjects of the Russian Federation – republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal significance, autonomous oblasts and autonomous okrugs.

Russian Cities on the Web (in Russian and in English)
http://www.city.ru/list.shtml

Federal Districts (Areas) of the Russian Federation

Seven new Federal Districts of the Russian Federation (in English)
http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/%7Echegeo/districts.htm


Federal Districts of the Russian Federation (map) (in English)
http://www.fccland.ru/english/map-fed.htm


T
he Central Federal District
(includes 18 regions)

Main characteristics of the Central Federal District (in Russian)
http://www.micex.ru/regions/center/overview.html


Central Federal District (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8638/
 
Interactive map of the district, official information about every region of the Central Federal District.

T
he North Western Federal District
(includes 11 republics & regions)

Main characteristics of the North Western Federal Dist
rict (in Russian)
http://www.micex.ru/regions/north-east/overview.html


North-West Federal District (in Russain)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8635/

Interactive map of the district, official information about every region of the North-West Federal District.

The South Federal District
(includes 13 republics & regions)

Main characteristics of the South Federal Region (in Russian)
http://www.micex.ru/regions/south/overview.html
 

South Federal Distict (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8639/

Interactive map of the district, official information about every region of the South Federal District.

T
he Ural Federal District
(includes 6 regions & areas)

Urals Federal District (in Russian)
http://www.uralfo.ru/okrug.html


Urals Federal District (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8637/

Interactive map of the district, official information about every region of the Urals Federal District.

The Urals Federal District in the renewed Russia (in English)
http://www.uralfo.ru/londoneng.html

Analytical materials about the develoment of the Urals federal distict of the Russian federation.

The Urals in the new dynamics of Russian-British business relations (in English) http://www.uralfo.ru/doclad8eng.html

Speech by the Russian Federation President's 1st Deputy Plenipotentiary in the Urals Federal District.

T
he Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District
(includes 15 republics & regions)

Main characteristics of the Privolzhsky Federal Region (in Russian)
http://www.micex.ru/regions/nearvolga/overview.html


Privolzhsky Federal Distict (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8634/

Interactive map of the district, official information about every region of the Privolzhsky Federal District.

T
he Siberian Federal District
(includes 16 republics & regions)

Main characteristics of the Siberian Federal Region (in Russian)
http://www.micex.ru/regions/sibir/overview.html

Siberian Federal District
http://www.sfo.nsk.su/
 (in Russian)
http://analitics.ex.ru/cgi-bin/txtnscr.pl?node=752&txt=1756&lang=2&sh=1
 (in English)

The Far-Eastern Federal District
(includes 10 republics & regions)

Main characteristics of the Far-Eastern Federal Region (in Russian)
http://www.micex.ru/regions/farwest/overview.html

Far-Eastern Federal District (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8633/

Interactive map of the district, official information about every region of the Far-Eastern Federal District.
 

Republics Within the Russian Federation

Republic of Adygeia (Adygeia) (in Russian and in English)
http://www.circassian.narod.ru/ra/index.html

Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Adygeia (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=1

Republic of Altai (in Russian)
http://www.altairegion.ru

Altai Republic official Web-site (in Russian & in English)
http://www.altai-republic.com/
 

Bank of Legal Acts of Altai Republic (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=2


Republic of Bashkortostan
http://www.bashinfo.ru/section_rus5.asp?SID=1019
 (in Russian)
http://www.bashinfo.ru/section_en5.asp?SID=1019
 (in English)

Legislation of Republic of Bashkortostan (in Russian)
http://www.law.rb.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Bashkortostan (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=3


Legislation of Bashkortostan (in Russian & in English)
http://www.alvisp.ru/bash/

Database of the legal documents (full-text, free of charge).

Republic of Buriatiia (in Russian & in English)
http://gov.buryatia.ru:8080/


Main Legal Acts of Republic of Buriatiia (in Russian)
http://www.buryatia.ru/buryatia/gov/zak_vlas/zakoni/


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Buriatiia (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=4


Republic of Dagestan (in Russian & in English)
http://rd.dgu.ru/

http://www.diap.ru/
 
Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Dagestan (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=5


Ingushskaia Republic (Ingushetia) (in Russian)
http://www.ingushetia.ru/


Kabardino-Balkarskaia Republic (in Russian & in English)
http://www.nalnet.ru/

Bank of Legal Acts of Kabardino-Balkarskaia Republic (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=6


Municipal Legislation Kabardino-Balkarskaia Republic (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=7


Republic of Kalmykia (in Russian & in English)
http://kalm.ru/ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Kalmykia (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=8


Legal Acts of Republic of Kalmykia (in Russian)
http://kalm.ru/ru/docs.html


Karachaevo-Cherkesskaia Republic (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8639/8792/


Bank of Legal Acts of Karachaevo-Cherkesskaia Republic (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=9


Republic of Kareliia (in Russian, in English, in Finnish)
http://www.gov.karelia.ru/index1.html
 
Karelian Republic Legislation (in Russian)
http://law.karelia.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Kareliia (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=10


Republic of Komi (in Russian)
http://www.rkomi.ru/


Reference Legal System of the Legislation of Komi Republic (in Russian)
http://www.rkomi.ru/komilaw/

Full-text database includes legal documents of Republic of Komi from 1978 (free of charge).

Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Komi (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=11


Republic of Mariy El (in Russian)
http://gov.mari.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Mariy El (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=12


Republic of Mordoviya (in Russian)
http://whrm.moris.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Mordoviya (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=13


Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya) (in Russian)
http://www.sakha.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Sakha (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=14


Main Legal Acts of Republic of Sakha (in Russian)
http://www.ykt.ru/izbirkom/zakon/zak_res.htm


Republic of Northen Ossetia (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8639/8798/

http://president.osetia.ru/resp.htm


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Northen Ossetia (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=15


Republic of Tatarstan (in Russian & in English)
http://www.tatar.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Tatarstan (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=16


Main Legal Acts of Republic of Tatarstan
http://www.tatar.ru/?DNSID=71d71ad0a84f6cdf6d993d87fc3bea63&node_id=221
(in Russian)
http://www.tatar.ru/?DNSID=71d71ad0a84f6cdf6d993d87fc3bea63&node_id=803
 (in English)

Republic of Tuva (in Russian)
http://gov.tuva.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Tuva (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=17


Udmurtskaia Republic
http://www.udmurt.ru/
 (in Russian)
http://mir.udmweb.ru/go.aspx?pageid=4
(in Russian and in English)

Udmurtia Republic Directory (in English)
http://www.udm.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Udmurtskaia Republic (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=18


Republic of Khakasiia (in Russian)
http://www.gov.khakassia.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Republic of Khakasiia (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=20


Chechenskaia Republic (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8639/8801/

http://chechnya.gov.ru/


Chuvashskaia Republic (Chuvash Republic) (in Russian, in English, in Germany)
http://www.cap.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Chuvashskaia Republic (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=21


Legal Acts of Chuvashskaia Republic (in Russian)
http://www.chuvashia.com/law/main.asp?selector=ch

Krais (Provinces) Within the Russian Federation

Altaiskii krai (in Russian)
http://www.altairegion.ru/

Bank of Legal Acts of Altaiskii Krai (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=22


Krasnodarskii Krai (in Russian)
http://www.zsk-kuban.ru/
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8639/8793/


Main Legal Acts of Krasnodarski Krai (in Russian)
http://www.zsk-kuban.ru/docs/index.html


Bank of Legal Acts of Krasnodarski Krai (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=23


Krasnoiarskii Krai
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8636/8750/
 (in Russian)

Legislative Power of Krasnoiarskii Krai(in Russian)
http://www.legis.krsn.ru/
 

Administration of Krasnoiarskii Krai (in Russian)
http://www.krskstate.ru/


Main Legal Acts of Krasnoiarskii Krai (in Russian)
http://www.info-k.siat.ru/law/law-gen.htm


Bank of Legal Acts of Krasnoiarskii Krai (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=24


Primorskii krai (in Russian)
http://www.primorsky.ru/


Main Legal Acts of Primorskii Krai (in Russian)
http://duma.inform.primorsky.ru/duma/lawd.nsf/?Open


Bank of Legal Acts of Promorskii Krai (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=25


Stavropol'skii Krai (in Russian)
http://www.stavropol.net/


State Duma of Stavropol’ski Krai (in Russian)
http://gdsk.stavropol.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Stavropol’skii Krai (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=26

Oblasts (Regions) Within the Russian Federation

Amurskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.blagov.ru/region.sb/index.html

Amurskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.amurobl.ru/


Administration of Amurskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.blagov.ru/region.sb/index.html


Bank of Legal Acts of Amurskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=30


Arkhangel'skaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.arkhadm.gov.ru/

http://www.dvinaland.ru


Bank of Legal Acts of Arkhangel'skaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=31


Astrakhanskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.adm.astranet.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Astrakhanskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=33


Astrakhan Regional Guide : Legal Acts (in Russian)
http://www.handbook.astralink.ru/laws.php3


Belgorodskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://beladm.bel.ru/


Main Legal Acts of Belgorodskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://beladm.bel.ru/postan.shtml


Bank of Legal Acts of Belgorodskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://belgorod.rcci.ru/RIN/DataBases/Law/


Brianskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.admin.debryansk.ru/

http://www.bryanskobl.ru/


Official Bulletin of the Administration of Brianskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.bryanskobl.ru/~press/ARCHIV/index.shtml


Bank of Legal Acts of Brianskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=35


Vladimirskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.avo.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Vladimirskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=36


Volgogradskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.volganet.ru/

Bank of Legal Acts of Volgogradskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=38


News in the Legislation of Volgogradskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.volgogradcity.ru/zakon/vd/index.shtml


Vologodskaia oblast (in Russian, in English, in Germany)
http://www.vologda-oblast.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Vologodskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=40


Legislation of Vologodskaia oblast in the legal database “Zakon” (in Russian)
http://www.odele.ru/law/10.htm


Voronezhskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://admin.vrn.ru/
 
Bank of Legal Acts of Voronezhskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=41
 
Ivanovskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://ivadm.ivanovo.ru:8101/


Bank of Legal Acts of Ivanovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=42


Irkutskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.admirk.ru/

http://www.irk.gov.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Irkutskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=43


Kaliningradskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.gov.kaliningrad.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Kaliningradskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=44


Kaluzhskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.admobl.kaluga.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Kaluzhskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=45

Kamchatskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8633/8708/


Bank of Legal Acts of Kamchatskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=47


Kemerovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.kemerovo.su/


Bank of Legal Acts of Kemerovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=48


Kirovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.gov-vyatka.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Kirovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=49


Kostromskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.region.kostroma.net/


Bank of Legal Acts of Kostromskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=50


Kurganskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://admobl.kurgan.ru/Structur/structur.htm


Bank of Legal Acts of Kurganskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=52

Kurskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.oblduma.kursknet.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Kurskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=53


Leningradskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.lenobl.ru/index1.php3


Bank of Legal Acts of Leningradskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=54


Lipetskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.admlr.lipetsk.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Lipetskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=56

Magadanskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.regadm.magadan.ru/
 
Bank of Legal Acts of Magadanskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=57


Moskovskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://obladm.tsr.ru/
 
Bank of Legal Acts of Moskovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=58


Murmanskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://gov.murman.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Murmanskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=59


Nizhegorodskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.government.nnov.ru/



Bank of Legal Acts of Nizhegorodskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=60


Novgorodskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://region.adm.nov.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Novgorodskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=61


Novosibirskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.adm.nso.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Novosibirskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=63


Omskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://region.omskelecom.ru/

http://vlast.rambler.ru/8620/8636/8752/

http://www.sibgric.net/regions/omsk.php
 
Bank of Legal Acts of Omskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=64


Orenburgskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.orb.ru/

http://www.parlament.orb.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Orenburgskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=65


Orlovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.adm.orel.ru/
 
Bank of Legal Acts of Orlovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=66


Penzenskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.obl.penza.net/


Bank of Legal Acts of Penzenskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=67


Permskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.perm.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Permskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=68


Pskovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.pskov.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Pskovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=69


Rostovskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.donland.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Rostovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=70


Riazanskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.gov.ryazan.ru:8101/

Two sections of the official site are in English - Package of investment of the Ryazan Region” and “Enterprises of the Ryazan Region”.

Bank of Legal Acts of Riazanskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=71


Samarskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.adm.samara.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Samarskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=72


Saratovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.gov.saratov.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Saratovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=73


Sakhalinskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.sakhipa.ru/ru/sakhalin/info.php


Bank of Legal Acts of Sakhalinskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=74


Sverdlovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.midural.ru/midural-new/


Legislation of Sverdlovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.midural.ru/midural-new/page_gover3.htm


Smolenskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://admin.smolensk.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Smolenskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=75


Tambovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.regadm.tambov.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Tambovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=78


Tverskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.region.tver.ru/

Bank of Legal Acts of Tverskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=79


Tomskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.tranet.trecom.tomsk.su/


Bank of Legal Acts of Tomskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=80


Tul'skaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.region.tula.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Tul’slaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=81


Tiumenskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://adm.tyumen.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Tiumenskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=83


Ul'ianovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://obladm.ulntc.ru/800/index.html


Bank of Legal Acts of Ul’ianovskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=84


Cheliabinskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.ural-chel.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Cheliabinskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=85


Chitinskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://www.adm.chita.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Chitinskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=86


Yaroslavskaia oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.adm.yar.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Yaroslavskaia oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=87

 

City - Subjects of Federal Significance Within the Russian Federation

Moscow (in Russian)
http://www.mos.ru/

http://www.duma.mos.ru/


Bank of Legal Acts of Moscow (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=88


Saint-Petersburg
http://www.spb.ru/
 (in Russian and in English)

Legislative Assembly of Saint-Petersburg (in Russian
)
http://www.assembly.spb.ru/


Official Portal of Saint-Petersburg Government (in Russian
and in English)
http://www.gov.spb.ru/


Business Information Channel of Saint-Petersburg (in Russian
and
in English)
http://www.abic.spb.ru/

Bank of Legal Acts of Saint-Petersburg (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=89

Autonomous Oblast (Region) Within the Russian Federation

The Jewish autonomous oblast (in Russian & in English)
http://www.eao.ru/

Bank of Legal Acts of Jewish autonomous oblast (in Russian)
http://riac.nester.ru/bpa/bank_fz.asp?nb=90

Autonomous Okrugs (Districts) Within the Russian Federation

Aginskii Buriatskii autonomous okrug (in Russian)
http://wwg.lgg.ru/russia/reg80.html

Komi-Permiatskii autonomous okrug (in Russian)
http://wwg.lgg.ru/russia/reg81.html/

Koriakskii autonomous okrug (in Russian)
http://wwg.lgg.ru/russia/reg82.html

Nenetskii autonomous okrug (in Russian)
http://wwg.lgg.ru/russia/reg82.html

Taimyrskii (Dolgano-Nenetskii) autonomous okrug (in Russian)
http://wwg.lgg.ru/russia/reg84.html

Ust'-Ordynskii (Buriatskii) autonomous okrug (in Russian)
http://wwg.lgg.ru/russia/reg85.html

Hanty-Mansiyskii autonomous okrug (in Russian & in English)
http://wwg.lgg.ru/russia/reg85.html

Chukotskii autonomous okrug (in Russian)
http://wwg.lgg.ru/russia/reg87.html

Evenkiyskii autonomous okrug (in Russian)
http://wwg.lgg.ru/russia/reg88.html

Iamalo-Nenetskii autonomous okrug (in Russian)
http://www.yamal.ru/

Legal Systems, Databases, Guides and Indexes

Legal System "Garant"

Legal System "GARANT" (in Russian and in English) 
http://www.garant.ru/

GARANT Legal System WWW-version (in Russian and in English) 
http://garant.park.ru/

The computerized legal system "GARANT" includes 18 specialized legal units on all sections of federal legislation and more that 40 legal units on the legislation of the Subjects of the Russian Federation.

The informational resources of the legal system include more than 200,000 documents and 50 megabytes of analytical information including comments.

It is the worlds only sufficiently complete bank of Russian legal information translated into English:

Legislation of the Russia (in English)
http://egarant.park.ru/default.asp?
This database includes codes, laws, decrees of the President, decisions and other normative acts of the Government of the Russian Federation, documents of the higher juridical bodies of the Russian Federation, normative legal acts of the bodies of executive power, international agreements and conventions.

Legal Systems "Kodeks"

Kodeks Legal Information Consortium (in English)
http://www.fort-ross.ru/index.asp?file=member&filterID_User=11&filterStatus=1&filterUserType=2

About "The Legal Information Consortium "Kodeks" - a non-commercial partnership of Russian companies, developing the legal information and software packages trademarked "KODEKS" and "WK-KODEKS".

Information Legal System "KODEKS" (in Russian and in English)
http://www2.kodeks.net/index.html, http://www.kodeks.com/
The Kodeks professional legal systems - the largest computer data bank of legal information in Russia. It contains over 250,000 documents of Russian federal legislation, international and foreign law, regional legislation of Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Moscow and Leningrad Regions and many other entities within the Federation. There are databases of samples of business letters and contracts, comments, expert estimates and advices, electronic versions of popular legal and business magazines and newspapers in the information system. Fee based.

Free of Charge Information Resources of "Kodeks" (in Russian)
http://www2.kodeks.net/free/free.html

Database "Business Law of Russia"  (in English)
http://www2.kodeks.net/n-zakeng?d&nd=6300001&prevDoc=6327029

This database includes documents concerning:

  • Arbitrary process. Economic dispute
  • Assurance and assurance activity
  • Banking activities. Monetary circulation
  • Book-entry accounting and finances
  • Civil and commercial law
  • Civil procedure (civil proceedings dispute)
  • Criminal, criminal adjective law
  • Customs legislation - Foreign economic activity
  • International law
  • Law of master and servant and social questions
  • Legislation of administrative offence
  • National economy branches
  • Public law (national organization)
  • Social and culture area
  • Taxes and obligatory payments
  • Wildlife conservation and nature management

Daily Express-Review of Legislation of Russian Federation (in English)
http://www2.kodeks.net/dayreview?d&nd=363


Express-reviews of legislation of Russian Federation (ARCHIEVE) (in English)
http://www2.kodeks.net/dayreview?d&nd=707400001

Archieve of Express-reviews of legislation of Russian Federation from 03.05.2001.

Daily Review of Legislation of Saint-Petersburg (in Russian)
http://www2.kodeks.net/news/day_spb.html


Daily Express-Review of Legislation of Moscow (in Russian)
http://www2.kodeks.net/news/day_msk.html

Nationwide Russian Network for Distribution of Legal Information "Consultant Plus"

ConsultantPlus (in Russian)
http://www.consultant.ru/

ConsultantPlus is the largest service network operating in the Russian market of information and legal services. Its main activity is distribution of legal information. Now the Network consists of 300 Regional Information Centers (RIC) located in 150 cities all over Russia.

The customers have access to databases on federal, international and regional legislation; a collection of advisory materials on accountancy, taxation, court practice etc; thousands of transactional forms, including business forms, real estate forms, trust deeds, wills and many more. In addition RIC are developing databases on legislation of 77 regions of Russian Federation.

ConsultantPlus Network ensures quality of service combined with flexible pricing. Due to their high quality and efficiency ConsultantPlus products were the first in the legal information area of Russia to be certified by Microsoft for Windows NT/95/98 compatibility and for Year 2000 readiness.

ConsultantPlus products have no technological limitations for volume of information. The total number of documents of ConsultantPlus databases is more than 681,000. Today it is the largest legislation data bank available for customers.

The complete information on ConsultantPlus including Regional center list, product profiles, demo versions, document reviews and online access to some databases is available at the Russian version (http://www.consultant.ru/) of this site.

Demo-versions of Legal Systems of ConsultantPlus (in Russian)
http://www.consultant.ru/Purchase/Demo/Ftp

Demo-versions of all legal systems and databases of ConsultantPlus – free of charge.

Reference Legal & Economic Information (in Russian)
http://www.consultant.ru/Ref/

Free of charge.

Legal Databases, Catalogues, Guides & Indexes

Information Service "SEARCH" (in Russian and in English)
http://www.fipc.ru/fipc2001/legislation/acts.html
http://www.pol.ru/~poisk/offere.htm
Fee based service of the legal information on the Russian legislation.
For improvement of technology of obtaining of the information the first preliminary query of the User is processed free-of-charge.

Legal Organizer “Jurist" (in Russian)
http://www.intralex.ru/
New legal organizer “ARM Jurist” (Automation Working Place “Jurist”) offers access to the legislation of the Russian Federation, to judiciary and arbitration laws, acts & documents, to Moscow statutory acts, to commentaries to the Codes of the Russian Federation. Organizer offers also the analytical possibilities for users of legal databases.
Users can make a FREE ORDER (http://www.intralex.ru/products_bpu_freecd.htm) of any CD collection, "The library of a practicing lawyer" at this server.


Database of Legal Information (in Russian)
http://www.systema.ru/search/search.asp
Database of Russian Legislation of Science-Technical Center of law information "System" of the Federal Agency of Governmental Communications and Information under the President of the Russian Federation.
Database contains law acts and documents dated since 1992 up to now. STC "System" receives decisions, laws, decrees of the President and other normative acts of the Government of the Russian Federation, documents of the higher juridical bodies of the Russian Federation.
The registered users are provided with the full access to the information resources of the system free of charge.

Legal System "USIS-Internet" (in Russian and in English)
http://www.intralex.ru/
Online l
egal database "USIS" offers access not only to the legislation of the Russian Federation but to judiciary and arbitration laws, Moscow statutory acts, and the comments on economic laws based on the data from "Life and Economy" newspaper. Daily updates via Internet.

Legal System "Referent" (in Russian)
http://www.referent.ru/
Online legal system of the Russian and Moscow legislations.  Free of charge access to the unregistered users from 19 till 23.

"Vashe Pravo" (Your Right) Personal Information-Retrieval System (in Russian)
http://www.ist.ru/vp/cgi-bin/request.exe
Russian legal database (free of charge on-line search).

Pravopoliten (in Russian)
http://www.pravopoliten.ru/
Russian catalogue of links to different legal resources including the catalogue of Russian legal databases and systems.

Russian Federation Law & Government - Law Research (in English)
http://www.lawresearch.com/v10/Global/CZRUg.HTM
Catalogue of links to Russian legal resources (Russian Government, Judiciary, Legislative).

Internet Law Library: Russia (in English)
http://www.lectlaw.com/inll/80.htm
Collection of links to Russian legal information and resources.

Guide to Law Online: Russia (in English)
http://www.loc.gov/law/guide/russia.html
The Guide to Law Online is an annotated compendium of hypertext links and descriptions of certain server sites which is created by the Law Library of Congress.

LawLand (in Russian)
http://lawland.chat.ru/
Catalogue of links to Russian legal resources.

Mir Prava (Space of Law) (in Russian)
http://www.mirprava.ru/

“Mir Prava” is an information portal on legislative issues, provided by government ministries, departments and institutions.

Russia : Law and Politics (in English)
http://law.gonzaga.edu/library/russia.htm

Catalogue of links of Gonzaga University School of Law.

FindLaw : International Resources: Russia (in English)
http://www.findlaw.com/12international/countries/ru.html

Collection of links to Russian legal systems and databases, articles and reviews of legislation, law-related web-sites.

Russian Law News (in English)
http://www.russianlaws.com/

Commentaries to the new federal laws of the Russian Federation and changes in the Russian Legislation.

Russian On-Line Legal Service (in English)
http://www.russianlegaladvice.com/

Online foreigner-oriented legal advice server on Russian law matters consists of several sections: Online Legal Opinions on Russian Law matters; Online Free Legal Advice (free of charge); Texts of Russian Legislation in English (paid information); Latest Russian Legal & Business News; Weekly Comprehensive Legal Research on some actual Russian Law problems, etc.

Russia on the Net: Law (in English)
http://www.ru/eng/index.2.html?topic=401

Collection of links to Russian legal resources.

Internet Law Library: Russia (in English)
http://www.solent.ac.uk/netlawlib/80.htm

Catalogue of links to Russian legal information and resources.

Russian Federation: Law (in English)
http://www.worldlii.org/catalog/2159.html

Catalogue of links to Russian legal information resources : legislation, law journals, legal indexes which is created by the World Legal Information Institute - a free, independent and non-profit global legal research facility developed collaboratively by the several Legal Information Institutes and organisations (http://www.worldlii.org/worldlii/).