Features - Material on Russian Federation Law in English: Updated

Lucy Cox is Reference and the Foreign/International Law Librarian at Rutgers University Law Library at Camden. She has an M.LS. Degree from Drexel University, and a Ph.D. in Russian language and literature from the University of Pennsylvania. She is the translator of Part I (pp. 3-425), of the book, Soviet Civil Law (ed. O.N. Sadikov, 1988). She has written book reviews on Soviet law and has given presentations on sources of Soviet law at conventions of the American Library Association, the American Association for Slavic Studies, and the Mid-Atlantic Slavic Association.

Editor's note (SP):  This is an update to the original guide (published June 15, 2001).  There are substantial additions to this guide.  These additions indicated by        (yellow background color) for easy identification.

Table of Contents

Research and Bibliographic Guides
Legal Dictionaries
Texts: Overview and Background
Compilations of Translated Legal Material (General)
Constitutional Law
Commercial Law
Treatises/Guides/Current Awareness
Compilations of laws on Business
Arbitration (International)
Company Law
Joint Stock Companies
Criminal Law
Human Rights
Intellectual Property Law
International Law
Media Law
Property Law
World Wide Web Sources

Research and Bibliographic Guides

Kavass, Igor I. Law in Russia and the Other Post-Soviet Republics: A Bibliographic Survey of English Language and Literature 1992-1995. Sequel to Soviet Law in English, Gorbachev's Law, and Demise of the Soviet Union. Buffalo, N.Y: William S. Hein & Co., 1997.
Extensive, thorough compilation of books, articles from law reviews and other journals. Access by author or subject.
Reynolds, Thomas H. and Arturo A Flores. Foreign Law: Current Sources of Codes and Legislation in Jurisdictions of the World. Littleton, CO: Fred B. Rothman & Co., 1989- . (Looseleaf).
Good starting point for research in Russian law. Provides historical background of legal system. Provides citations to major sources of law in Russian publications, but also gives copious citations to English translations if they exist. Also available on CD-ROM and fee-based on the Internet.
Bulletin of Current Research in East European Law. United States: s.n., 1972-. 3 times a year.
Published at the University of Toronto, Centre for Russian and East European Studies, beginning with vol. 11, no.3. Valuable source for coverage of current publications. Lists books, book reviews, articles from law reviews and other legal and related journals, announcements of conferences and of other news of interest to those involved in East European law. One section in each issue is devoted to listing English translations of legislation and court decisions.
The Post-Soviet Handbook: A Guide to Grassroots Organizations and Internet Resources.Rev. Ed. By M. Holt Ruffin ...et al. Foreword by S. Frederick Starr. Seattle: Center for Civil Society International. In Association with University of Washington Press, 1999. 
Detailed guide to independent, non-governmental organizations in the countries of the former Soviet Union, including Russia. Consists of two parts: the first part “profiles” the organizations; the second part lists Internet resources in the various countries.

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Legal Dictionaries


Baskakova, M.A. Tolkovyi iuridicheskii slovar’ biznesmena: russko-angliiskii, anglo-russkii - Legal Dictionary for Businessmen: Russian-English, English-Russian. 6th ed., rev. and exp. Moscow: “Finansy i statistika”, 1994.
Borysenko, I.I. and V.V. Saenko. Russko-angliiskii iuridicheskii slovar’: 22,000 terminov. Kiev: Iurinkom Inter, 1999.
Business Dictionary: Russian-English-Russko-angliiskii biznes slovar’. Moscow: International Pub. in cooperation with L&H Pub.Co.; Copenhagen: 1999.
Butler, William E. Russko-angliiskii iuridicheskii slovar’. Moscow: Zertaslo; London: Simmonds & Hill, 1995.
Butler, William E. Russian-English Legal Dictionary and Bibliographic Sources for Russian Law in English. Ardsley, N.Y: Transnational Pub., 2001.
Revised and expanded version of 1995 book listed above.
DeBeer, Shane R. Dictionary of Business and Legal Terms: Russian-English/English-Russian. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1995.


Andrianov, S.N., A.S. Berson, and A.S. Nikiforov. Anglo-russkii iuridicheskii slovar’. Moscow: “Russkii iazyk”, Izd. Firma “REIA,” 1993.
Braun, Marina and Galina Clothier. English-Russian Dictionary of American Criminal Law. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Komandin, G.A. Anglo-russkii iuridicheskii slovar’. Moskva: TOO “SKL, LTD.”, 1993.
Mamulian, A.S. and S. IU. Kashkin. Anglo-russkii polnyi iuridicheskii slovar’- English-Russian Comprehensive Law Dictionary. Moscow: Sovetnik, 1993.

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Texts: Overview and Background

Butler, William E. Russian Law. 2d ed. New York, N.Y.: Oxford, University Press, 2002.

Butler, William E. Russian Law. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Comprehensive textbook. Part I. Legal Setting. Part II. The Legal System. Part III. Substantive Law. Part IV. The Law and Foreign Relations. Part V. Resource Material. Also includes tables of legislative acts and of treaties.
Danilenko, Gennadii M. and William Burnham. Law and Legal System of the Russian Federation. Yonkers, N.Y.: Juris Publishing, 1999.
Comprehensive textbook. Covers all aspects of Russian law. Also includes excerpts from court cases and study questions.
Ginsburgs, George, Donald D. Barry, and William B. Simons, eds. The Revival of Private Law in Central and Eastern Europe: Essays in Honour of Ferdinand J.M. Feldbrugge. Dordrecht: M. Nijhoff, 1996.
Includes articles on Property, Environmental law, Tort, Inheritance, Secured transactions, Lease, and International law of the Russian Federation.
Nysten-Haarala, Soili. Russian Law in Transition: Law and Institutional Change. Helsinki: Kikimora Publications, 2001.
Aim of this book is to study Russian transitional processes toward rule of law, a market economy and democracy. Focuses on development of constitutionalism, property rights and company law.
Risnes, Brynjulf, ed. The Legal Foundations of the New Russia. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 1998.
Includes articles on the Constitutional Court, Electoral Process, Federalism, and Citizens’ complaints against public bodies.

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Compilations of Translated Material (General)

Butler, William E., and Jane Henderson. Russian Legal Texts. The Foundations of a Rule-of-Law State and a Market Economy. London: Simmonds & Hill; Boston; The Hague: Kluwer International, 1998.
Contains legislation under these headings: Foundations of Federation; Rights of an and Citizens; The Judicial System and Other Tribunals; The Legal Profession; Instruments of a Market Economy; Foreign Relations Law. Some of the laws included are: 1998 Constitutional law On the Arbitrazh Courts; 1995 Law On the Procuracy; Family Code of the Russian Federation (1995); Criminal code of the Russian Federation (1996); etc.
Russia and the Republics: Basic Legal Texts. Vratislav Pechota, general ed. Ardsley-on-Hudson: Transnational Juris, 1991-. (Looseleaf).
8 vols. Russian Federation takes up 3 vols. Frequent updates. Includes useful introductory notes on salient features of specific laws. Legislation grouped under headings: Constitutional law, Civil law, Commercial law, Corporate law, Foreign Investment. Some of the specific laws included are: 1997 Law on Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations; 1998 Law on Leasing; 1995 Law on Joint Stock Companies; 1998 Law on Limited Liability Companies; 1999 Law on the Protection of Rights and Legitimate Interests of Investors in the Securities Market; etc. An additional volume is titled: Judicial and Arbitral Decisions. It covers cases dealing with issues of Russian law in the courts of various countries, including Canada, United Kingdom and the United States.

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General law journals provide a wealth of material on Russian law, and they may be searched in the standard indexes, Index to Legal Periodicals or Current Law Index. The listing below includes only journals or serials which deal specifically with Russia (or Eastern Europe including Russia). Besides articles and book reviews, some of the journals listed below provide translations of legislation and of court decisions. One of the journals is devoted exclusively to the translation of statutes and decisions.

East European Constitutional Review. Chicago, IL: Publ. by the Center for the Study of Constitutionalism in Eastern Europe at the University of Chicago Law School in partnership with the Central European University, 1992-.Quarterly.
Published by New York University School of Law and Central European University beginning with v.6, no. 4. Contains notes and articles providing overview on constitutional and other public law issues. Back issues available on the Internet at http://www.lawnyu.edu/eecr/.
Mezhdunarodnoe Pravo=International Law. Moscow. 1998-. One issue every 4 months.
Material is given in both Russian and English. Editorial board is drawn mainly from the Peoples Friendship University in Moscow.
Journal of East European Law. New York, N.Y: East European Law Center, Columbia University School of Law, 1999-.Quarterly.
Continues Parker School Journal of East European Law. Includes useful section titled: “Survey of East European Law”, which provides analytical commentaries on legal developments.
Parker School Journal of East European Law. New York, N.Y: Parker School of Foreign and Comparative Law, Columbia University School of Law, 1994-1998. 6 issues per year, 1994-1997. Quarterly, 1998.
Post-Soviet Media Law and Policy Newsletter. New York, N.Y: 1993-. 10 issues per year.
Published by the Russian-American Press and Information Center , New York University Center for War, Peace, and the News Media and the Howard Squadron Program in Law, Media and Society at Cardozo Law School, Yeshiva University.  Also available on the web here: (http://www.vii.org/monroe) Ceased publication in 1999. Succeeded by Post-Soviet Media Law and Policy Newsletter (http://pcmlp.socleg.ox.ac.uk/transition)
Review of Central and East European Law. Dordrecht; Boston: M. Nijhoff, 1992-1998. 6 6 issues per year. 1999-. Quarterly.
Continues Review of Socialist Law. Published in Cooperation with the Institute of East European Law and Russian Studies at the University of Leiden. Frequently includes translations of legislation. Issues 19-22 contained a section titled “Russian Federation Legislative Survey”, which listed the most important legislation from June 12, 1990 through April 1995. Laws were indexed by subject, with official citations given.
Russian Politics and Law. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1992-. Bimonthly.
Translations from Russian-language sources.
SEEL: Survey of East European Law. Ardsley-on-Hudson, N.Y: Transnational Juris, 1991-. 10 issues per year.
Analytical articles on current legislation.
Statutes and Decisions: the Law of the USSR and its Successor States. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1991-. Quarterly.
Continues Soviet Statutes and Decisions. This journal is devoted exclusively to translations. Individual issues, or more than one issue, include relevant translations of legislation, edicts, court decisions and other materials dealing with specific area of law.
Sudebnik. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1996-. Quarterly.
Published under auspices of the Moscow Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences and of the Vinogradoff Institute, University College, London. This journal includes translations of recent legislation and court decrees as a regular feature in the section “Documents”. Some of the translated laws found in this journal are: Federal Constitutional Law On Arbitrazh Courts, 2, no.3 (1997): 28-757; Federal Law On Defence of the Rights and Legal Interests of Investors of the Securities Market, 4, no.1 (1999): 209-229; On Foreign Investments in the Russian Federation, 4, no. 1 (1999); Federal Law On State Regulation of Foreign Trade Activity, 1, no.2 (1996): 427-455; Federal Law On Joint Stock Societies, 1, no.1 (1996): 199-284; Law on the Organization of Insurance Affairs, 3, no.1 (1998): 173-187; Federal Law On International Treaties of the Russian Federation. 1, no.2 (1996): 456-486; Federal Constitutional Law On the Judicial System of the Russian Federation, 2, no.1 (1997): 217-237; On Mortgage (Pledge of Immovables), v. 3, no.3 (1998); Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on the Notariat (1993), 2, no.4 (1997): 1005-1049; On the Peculiarities of the Legal Status of Joint- Stock Societies of Worker People’s Enterprises, 3, no.2 1998): 379-402; Law On Pledge, 1, no.3 (1996): 819-842.

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Constitutional Law

Texts of Constitution

For the constitution online, go to Web Sources in this paper.

Belyakov, Vladimir V., and Walter J. Raymond. Constitution of the Russian Federation: With Commentaries and Interpretations. Lawrenceville, VA: Brunswick Publishing Corp.; Moscow: Novosti, 1994.
Includes reference material on 1994 Duma, maps.
Constitution of the Russian Federation. Helsinki. Finnish Lawyers’ Publishing, 1994.
Text in English and Finnish.
Constitution of the Russian Federation. Moscow: Juridical Literature, 1994.
Text in Russian and English.
Tomanov, Vladimir, ed. Constitution of the Russian Federation: A Legal Interpretation. Bethesda, MD: Austin and Winfield, 1995.
Translations in English, French and German, as well as commentaries.
Constitutions of the Countries of the World. Edited by Gisbert H. Flanz. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana, 1971-.(Looseleaf).

Constitutional Issues

“Legal Reformation: New Institutions and New Principles. Elections: The Federal Assembly.” Statutes and Decisions. The Laws of the USSR and its Successor States. 32, no. 1(January-February 1996).
Special issue devoted to legislation and decrees related to elections. Includes text of Law On Elections of Deputies to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of 21 June 1995.
“The Development of Russian Federalism.” Statutes and Decisions: The Laws of the USSR and Its Successor States. 33, no.6 (Nov.-Dec.1997)-34, no.6 (Nov.-Dec. 1998).
These 7 issues include statutes and treaties dealing with the issue of federalism. For decisions of the Constitutional Court regarding federalism, see under Constitutional Court in this paper.

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Civil Code

Civil Code of the Russian Federation: Parts One and Two: Adopted by the State Duma on 21 October 1994 and 22 December 1995, as Amended 20 February and 12 August 1996. Translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill: Primrose Academy, 1997.
The Civil Code of the Russian Federation: Parts 1 and 2. Edited and Translated by Peter B. Maggs with A.N. Zhiltsov. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

The Civil Code of the Russian Federation: Part 3. With Amendments to the first and second parts. Edited and Translated by Peter B. Maggs. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 2002.

Russian Civil Legislation: The Civil Code (Parts One and Two) and Other Surviving Legislation of the Russian Federation. Edited, compiled, and translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill; The Hague; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1999.

Criminal Code

The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1997.
The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. 3rd ed. Edited and translated by W.E. Butler. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999.
“Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.” Statutes and Decisions: the Law of the USSR and its Successor States. 33, no.4 (July-August 1997)-33, no.5 (September-October 1997).
Translation of entire code in 2 successive issues of the journal.

Family Code

Russian Family Law: the Family Code of the Russian Federation and Federal Law on Acts of Civil Status. Edited and translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1998.

Labor Code

The Labour Code of the Russian Federation. Translated by William E. Butler. London: Interlist, 1993.

Tax Code

Tax Code of the Russian Federation: Part One, as Revised and Amended 30 March and 9 July,1999. Edited and translated by W.E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1999.

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Benro Schwarz, “Litigation in Russia.” In Litigation and Arbitration in Central and Eastern Europe. Edited by David W. Rivkin and Charles Platto. The Hague; London; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1996.
Succinct explanation of the competence of civil and commercial courts within the Russian Federation court system.
Solomon, Peter H. and Todd S. Foglesong. Courts and Transition in Russia: The Challenge of Judicial Reform. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
Examination of court system based on field research, including survey responses by Russian judges. Includes recommendations for strengthening the court system. Does not include arbitrazh courts or the Constitutional Court.

Arbitrazh Courts

“Legal Reformation: New Institutions and New Principles: Arbitrazh Courts.” Statutes and Decisions. The Laws of the USSR and its Successor States. 32, no.4 (July-August 1996).
Includes the Law on the Arbitrazh Courts of April 28, 1995; The Arbitrazh Procedure Code of May 5, 1995.
“Decrees of the Supreme Arbitrazh Court: ‘On the Legal Status of Forwards’ and ‘On the Operations of International Treaties of the Russian Federation Relating to Constitutions of Arbitrazh Procedure’.” Sudebnik 4, no. 2 (1999): 337-356.
See also, Reynolds, Sarah. Handbook on Commercial Dispute Resolution in the Russian Federation. Listed under: Commercial Law: Guides/Current Awareness, in this paper.

Constitutional Court

“Legal Reformation: New Constitutions and New Principles: The Jurisprudence of the First Russian Constitutional Court.” Statutes and Decisions: The Laws of the USSR and Its Successor States. 30, no.3, (May-June 1994)-30, no.6 (November-December 1994).
These 4 issues of the journal include decisions of the Constitutional Court issued from January 1992 to the time of its suspension in the political crisis of October 1993.
“Legal Reformation: New Institutions and New Principles--The Russian Constitutional Court Revisited.” Statutes and Decisions. The Laws of the USSR and its Successor States. 31, no. 4 (July-August 1995)-31, no.5 (September-October 1995).
These 2 issues include a translation of the 1994 Law on the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the first eleven decisions issued in 1995, including the decision and dissents on the constitutionality of the War in Chechnia.
“The Development of Russian Federalism: Federalism in the Courts.” Statutes and Decisions: The Laws of the USSR and its Successor States. 35, no.3 (May-June 1999)-35, no.4, (Sept.-Oct. 1999).
Two successive issues of the journal are devoted to translations of decisions of the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation between 1995 and 1998 dealing with federalism. Often deal with charters and statutes from regions of the Russian Federation.
“Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation Federation on the Verification of the Constitutionality of Provisions of the Federal law as of April 15, 1998, ‘On Cultural Values Displaced to the USSR as a Result of World War II and Situated on the Territory of the Russian Federation’.” Mezhdunarodnoe Pravo-International Law. 1/2000/7:281-301.

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Commercial Law

Treatises/Guides/Current Awareness

BNA’s Eastern European Reporter. Washington, D.C: Bureau of National Affairs,. 1991- (Looseleaf). Bi-monthly.
Provides current coverage of legal aspects of commerce. Short overview of recent Developments. Includes country reports, industry checklist, highlights.
Doing Business in the Russian Federation. N.Y: Price Waterhouse, 1997.
Frenkel, William G. Commercial Law of Russia: A Legal Treatise. Irvington - on-Hudson: Transnational Juris, 1995-. (Looseleaf).
Contains detailed explanations of laws relating to property, business organizations, foreign investment, etc. and includes select translations of legislation.
Handbook for doing Business in Russia: U.S. and Canadian Firms in Russia. 5th ed. Moscow: Daksi Publ.; London: Simmonds & Hill, 1998.
Legal Guide to doing Business in Russia and the Former Republics of the USSR. Edited by Aviva Akren. Chicago: Sect. Of International Law & Practice, American Bar Association, 2000.
Reynolds, Sarah. Handbook on Commercial Dispute Resolution in the Russian Federation: a Guide for Businesses on Navigating the Russian Legal System for Resolution of Business Disputes. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 2000.
Gives detailed information on various bodies involved in dispute resolution, stressing especially the important role of arbitrazh courts. Outlines steps of procedures in filing claims, responding to petitions, filing appeals, etc. Appendices give examples of petitions, responses to petitions, appeal complaint, etc.
Russia: A Legal Guide. London: Euromoney Pub., 1997.
Special supplement to International Financial Law Review, October 1997.
Working with the Non-Profit Sector in Russia: A Guide for Companies, Foundations and international Agencies. Kings Hill, West Walling, Kent: CAF; London: Kluwer Law International Ltd., 1998-. (Looseleaf).
Assessing the Value of Law in Transition Economies. Edited by Peter Murrell. Ann Arbor, MI.: University of Michigan Press, 2001. 
Contains articles by various authors, including the following: "Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg: Business Disputes in Russia," by Kathryn Hendley; "The Experience of Foreign Litigants in Russia's Commercial Courts," by Glenn P. Henrix; "Does Russian Legal Reform Matter? Evidence from Crude Oil Export Allocations," by Daniel Berkowitz. 
Doing Business with Russia. Consultant editor Marat Terterov. 2nd ed. London: Kogan Page, 2001. 
This book has a foreword by HRH Prince Michael of Kent and is produced in association with the Russo-British Chamber of Commerce, Moscow Narodnyi Bank, Deloitte and Touche, etc. Practical information and advice on all aspects of conducting business in Russia, provided by parties with strong interests in this sphere. Some of the chapters included are: "Privatisation in Russia," by Sergei Glaser, Chief Strategist, Alfa Securities Ltd.; "The Legal Regime and the Regulatory Environment," by CMS Cameron McKenna; "Auditing and Accounting," by Deloitte and Touche; "The Long Road Towards Good Corporate Governance," by Alexander Ikonnikov, Executive Director, Investor Protection Association. 
The Investment Environment in the Russian Federation: Laws, Policies and Institutions. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001. 
Gives legal and regulatory framework for foreign investment, including overview of legislation on investment activity. Contains analysis of property rights protection, privatisation policies, etc.
Orlov, Vladimir. Entrepreneurship in Russia: General Juridical Conditions from the Point of View of the Western Enterprise. Helskinki: Kauppakaari, 1999. 
The purpose of this book is to explain how Russian legal norms function with regard to the usual expectations of foreign enterprises. Analyzes legislation regulating entrepreneurship, such as the civil code, joint stock company law, capital investment law, foreign trade legislation, etc. Includes list of "Basic Russian Laws Regulating Entrepreneurship."
Tolonen, Juha and Boris Topornin. Legal Foundations of the Russian Economy. Helsinki: Kikimora Publications, 2000.

Compilations of Laws on Business

The sources listed below are no longer updated, and this is so noted in each instance. However, they have been included here because the commentary and translation found in them still have value.

Birenbaum, David Business Ventures in Eastern Europe and Russia. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall Law and Business, 1992. 2 vols. (Looseleaf)
Commentary and translations of laws. V. 2. contains full text of legislation. Has not been updated since 1993, but still excellent source for laws of that period.
Business and Commercial Laws of Russia : Translations with Expert Commentary. J.P. Hupp, gen. ed. Translations by Russica Information, Inc. Colorado Springs, CO: Shepard’s McGraw Hill, 1993-1995. 3 vols. (Looseleaf). Suspended at end of 1995.
Trade and Commercial Laws of the Russian Federation: Official Codification and Commentary. Compiled and edited by the Academy of Jurisprudence of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation, The Institute of Economic Problems of the Transitional Period of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation in Association with Dickie, McCamey & Chilcote, P.C.; commentaries by the Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Law faculty. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Pub., 1993. (Looseleaf). Not updated since 1996.
Commercial Code of Russia: an Adaptive Translation of the Laws of the Russian Federation Relating to Domestic and Foreign Commerce. Ed. By N. V. Romanovskaia and R. G. Allen. Manassas, Va. AHH Publications, 1993-1999. (Looseleaf). Publication ceased.

Arbitration (International)

Hober, Kaj. Enforcing Foreign Arbitral Awards against Russian Entities. Irvington-on Hudson, N.Y: Transnational Juris, 1994.
Rivkin, David W. and Charles Platto, eds. Litigation and Arbitration in Central and Eastern Europe. The Hague; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1998.
Contains: “Arbitration in Russia”, by Andrey Gorodissky. Also includes, in Annex IV of book: “Law on International Commercial Arbitration of July 7, 1993; Rules of the International Commercial Arbitration Court at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation; Statute on the International Commercial Arbitration Court at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation.”
“Rules of International Commercial Arbitration Court of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation.” Trans. by W.B. Simons and C. Vaughn-Kirov. Review of Central and East European Law. 22, no.1 (Spring 1996).
World Arbitration Reporter. >Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, eds . Juris Pub., 1986-. (Looseleaf)
Vol. 2A contains background on arbitration in the Russian federation; Law of the Russian Federation on International Commercial Arbitration (of 1993), and citations to judicial and arbitral decisions. Vol. 4A contains Rules of The International Arbitral Court at the Chamber of Commerce & Industry of the Russian Federation.
Johnson, Juliet Ellen. A Fistful of Rubles: The Rise and Fall of the Russian Banking System. Ithaca., N.Y.; London: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Study of causes for the collapse of the Russian banking system in 1998.


"Legislation on Bankruptcy in the Russian Federation: A Special Issue." Review of Central and East European Law. 25:1-2 (1999).
Contains translations of the laws On Insolvency (Bankruptcy) and On Insolvency of Credit Organizations; also related decrees of the Government and of the Central Bank.

Company Law

Russian Company Law: Basic Legislation. 3rd ed. Edited and translated by W.E. Butler. Cambridge, MA: Kluwer Law International, 2000.
Includes translations of laws as amended through 1999. Includes explanations of laws on licensing of business activities, insurance, bankruptcy, foreign investment, etc.

Joint Stock Companies

Black, Bernard S. Guide to the Russian Federal Law on Joint Stock Companies: Commentary and Material. Kluwer. 1998.
Russian Joint-Stock Societies: Basic Legislation. Edited and translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1996.
Russian Law on Joint Stock companies. Moscow: Baker & McKenzie, 1996.
Russian Federal law on Joint Stock Companies, adopted by State Duma on Nov. 24, 1995, entered into force Jan. 1, 1996.


“Legal Reformation: New Institutions and New Principles: The Creation and Regulation of Markets: Demonopolization and Competition.” Statutes and Decisions: The Laws of the USSR and Its Successor States. 31, no.2 (Jan.-Feb. 1995)- 31, no.3 (May-June 1995). These 3 issues bring together various laws and orders on anti-monopoly policy, including the the 1992 amended version of the law “On Competition and Limitation of Monopolistic Activity in the Goods Markets”; Presidential edicts; and Decisions of the Arbitration Court dealing with competition and anti-monopoly policy from 1992 to 1995. Issue 31, no.2 focuses on consumer protection, and has different subtitle, “Consumer Protection” instead of ”Demonopolization and Competition.“


Smit, Hans and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Privatization in Eastern Europe: Legal, Economic and Social Aspects. Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y: Transnational Juris; Dordrecht (The Netherlands): Martinus Nijhoff, 1994.
Includes material on privatization in Russia. Annexes include list of privatization laws.


Karasseva, Marina. Tax Law in Russia. The Hague; London: Kluwer Law International, 2001.

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Criminal Law

Ledeneva, Alena V. and Kurkachiian, Marina., eds. Economic Crime in Russia. The Hague: Kluwer International, 2000.
Essays by various authors. Some included articles are: “Corruption and Violence in Russian Business in Late 1990's;” “Russian Hackers and Virtual Crime;” “Money Laundering Control and the Rule of Law in Russia.”
Mikhlin, Aleksandr S. The Death Penalty in Russia. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1999.
History of death penalty in pre-Soviet and Soviet periods, and application and regulation of the death penalty in the Russian Federation.
Williams, Phil. Russian Organized Crime. The New Threat? Ilford, Essex; Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1997.
Essays by various authors on origin and development of Russian criminal organizations and their activities both in Russia and in other countries.
Finckenauer, James O. and Yuri A. Voronin. The Threat of Russian Organized Crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Justice, 2001.
A short (33 pages) report on the evolution of organized crime in the Russian Federation, tracing its development from predecessor groups in the Soviet period. Provides detailed study of organized crime in the Yekateringburg (Sverdlovsk) area. Also available on-line at: (http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/intdocs.htm) Select report under "2001" listing of publications.
Varese, Federico. The Russian Mafia: Private Protection in a New Market Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Based on field work in city of Perm, this study points out that the demand for non-state protection stems from the fact that the state cannot offer the protection needed to meet the demand that accompanies the spread of market transactions during the transition to a private economy.

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Human Rights

Confessions at any Cost. Police Torture in Russia. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999.
Study of pre-trial detention and treatment of accused by Russian police.
Henderson, Jane E. “Defending the Rights and Freedoms of Citizens in the Russian Federation.” Sudebnik, 3, no.2 (1998): 293-302.
Includes the Law On Appealing to a Court Actions and Decisions Violating the Rights and Freedoms of Citizens.
Human Rights Violations in the Criminal Justice System of Russia: Arrest, Investigation, Pretrial Detention: Documents Collected by the Moscow Center for Prison Reform. Compiler and Editor, Valery Abramkin et al. Moscow: The Center, 1994.
Protection of Minority Rights through Bilateral Treaties: the Case of Central and Eastern Europe. Edited by Arie Bloed and Pieter van Dijk. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999.
Case studies on on effectiveness of bilateral treaties on minority rights in Poland, Hungary and Russia.
Sidorenko-Stephenson, Svetalana. Legal Reform and Human Rights in Russia: Key Developments and Actors. Colchester: Human Rights Centre, University of Essex, 1998.
Torture in Russia: “This Man-Made Hell.” New York: Amnesty International, 1997.
Helton, Arthur C. and Natalia Voronina. Forced Displacement and Human Security in the Former Soviet Union. Ardsley, N.Y: Transnational Publishers, 2000. 
Describes trends and most important issues regarding forced displacement in the countries of the former Soviet Union, including Russia. Discusses relevant international instruments, as well as multilateral and bi-lateral treaties among the specific countries. Appendices include: Amended Law of the Russian Federation on Forced Migrants (1995); Amended Law of the Russian Federation on Refugees (1992); and the Commonwealth of Independent States Treaty on Support to Refugees and Forced Migrants (1993). 

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Intellectual Property Law

Butler, William E., editor and translator. Intellectual Property Law in Russia. London: Simmonds and Hill, 1998.
Contains: “Law on Author’s and Neighbouring Rights”; “Law on Trademarks, Service Marks, and Names of Places of Origin of Goods;” “Patent Law of the Russian Federation;” “Law on the Legal Protection of Programmes for Electronic Computers and Data Bases;” “Law on the Legal Protection of Topologies of Integral Microcircuits.”
Elst, Michiel and Katlijn Malfliet, eds. Intellectual Property in the Russian Federation: A System in Transition. Brussels: Bruylant, 1994.
Includes many laws dealing with intellectual property, including the Patent Law, Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights.
Intellectual Property: Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States. Comp. and ed. by David Garrison. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana, 1995-. (Looseleaf)
Revised edition of Intellectual Property in the ex-Soviet Republics, 1992-1995. Includes translation of intellectual property legislation and related laws.

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International Law

Butler, William E. Russian Law of Treaties. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1997.
Contains Law On International Treaties and Continuation of Treaties made by the USSR.
Ginsburgs, George. From Soviet to Russian International Law: Studies in Continuity and Change. (Law in Eastern Europe, vol. 48). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1998.
Mullerson, Rein, et.al., eds. Constitutional Reform and International Law in Central and Eastern Europe. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1997.
Includes following essays: “Reference to International Law in the Decided Cases of the First Russian Constitutional Court,” by J. Henderson; “The First Russian Constitutional Court: Hopes and Aspiration,” by J. Henderson; “The Russian Treaty Law and the Vienna Convention on Treaties,” by M. Andenas; “The New Federal Law on International Treaties of the Russian Federation,” by S. Pounjine.
International Law in Russia and Eastern Europe: Essays in Honor of George Ginsburgs. Edited by Roger Clark, Ferdinand Feldbrugge and Stanislaw Pomorski. The Hague; Boston; London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001.
Includes following essays: "Recourse Against Judgments in Civil and Criminal Cases in the Russian Federation," by Ger P. van den Berg; "Contemporary International Criminal Law: Concepts and Features," by I.I. Lukashuk; "Moscow's Diplomacy in International Organizations," by Alvin Z. Rubinstein; "The Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards Under Russian Law: The (Ab)use of the Public Policy Doctrine in Russian Courts," by William B. Simons.  

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Media Law

Russian Media Challenge. Edited by Kaarle Nordenstreng, Elena Vartanova and Yassen Zassoursky. Helsinki: Kikimora Publications, 2001. 
Research papers by scholars from the Moscow State University Faculty of Journalism, with a "Prologue" by Mikhail Gorbachev and an "Epilogue" by two Finnish scholars. Appendices include "Media Statistics of the 89 Regions" and "Law of the Russian Federation on the Mass Media" (1991). 
Russian Media Law and Policy in the Yeltsin Decade: Essays and Documents. Edited by Monroe Price, Andrei Richter and Peter K. Yu. The Hague; London; New York: Kluwer Law International, 2002. 
This book contains articles, decisions, and legislative material. Much of this appeared earlier in the Post-Soviet Law and Policy Newsletter. Among the included items of legislation are: Law on Advertising (1995), and Law on the State Support of the Mass Media and Book-Publishing in the Russian Federation (1995)

Property Law

Mozolin, Viktor P. Property Law in Contemporary Russia. (Washington, D.C: International Law Institute, 1994-. (Looseleaf).

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World-Wide Web Sources

Arbitration (International)  

Law of the Russian Federation on International Commercial Arbitration. In Force 14 August 1993
(http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/russia.international.commercial.arbitration.1993/index.html) LexMercatoria

The Arbitrage of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Moscow 
The site includes background legislation, (http://www.mosarbitration.ru/engl/legal_status.html), example of an arbitration agreement (http://www.mosarbitration.ru/engl/agreement.html), explanation of recognition and enforcement of awards (http://www.mosarbitration.ru/engl/recognition.html) 

Arbitration Court at the Saint-Petersburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry
The site includes regulations of the Arbitration Court
http://www.spbcci.ru/english/regul.htm) and information on the Accreditation of a Foreign Firm Office (http://www.spbcci.ru/english/accred.html)

Article on "Law of the Russian Federation 'On International Commercial Arbitration'." (http://www.geocities.com/jdhevh/Arbitration_Law.html)
By Professor E.V. Bruntseva.

Article on the International Commercial Arbitration Court (ICAC) at the Chamber of Commerce of the Russian Federation (http://ns.fipc.qa/tp9.html)
From Invest in Russian Network. 


Civil Code. Part Two.In the wording effective from 23 December 1997 
From Russian Society of Appraisers. Click on "Laws" on left and scroll down to "Civil Code".
Tax Code of the Russian Federation (Part One) (http://www.garweb.ru/project/mns.nk/en/)
From Ministry of Taxation of the Russian Federation. 

The Constitution can be found on many sites. Those listed below are some of many possibilities.

Constitution of the Russian Federation. Adopted by Popular Vote on 12 December 1993 (http://ks.rfnet.ru/english/rus_eng.htm)  
From site of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. 

Constitution Finder 
From University of Richmond.

Constitution of the Russian Federation 
From Institute for Election Systems Development (IESD).

Constitution of the Russian Federation 
From Russian Embassy site. Select Constitution from listing on left under Country Profile.

  Arbitration Court (http://www.arbitr.ru/eng
Background information on Supreme Court of Arbitration.

Constitutional Court (http://ks.rfnet.ru/english/titleeng.htm
The English version of the official site includes the following: 

Law on the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation

Another translation of this law is found under "Laws on the Judiciary" listed below in this section.  

Full text of Selected Decisions of the Constitutional Court (http://ks.rfnet.ru/english/decision/titledec.htm) 

Summaries of Selected Decisions of the Constitutional Court (http://ks.rfnet.ru/english/codicese.htm

Listing of decisions of the Constitutional Court in chronological order, with their names in translation, by John Fowler (http://theRussiasite.org/legal/laws.ccrulings/list/html

Supreme Court (http://www.supcourt.ru/EN/frames.htm
The homepage in English links to a chart of the judicial system.  (http://www.supcourt.ru/EN.rj.htm)

It also links to the following laws:
Law on the Status of Judges of 26 June 1992, as amended.
Another version of this law is listed below in this section of the paper.

Law on the Judicial System of the Russian Federation of 1996
Another version of this law, translated as law "On the Court System of the Russian Federation," is found under "Laws on the Judiciary" listed below in this section.

Judges' Status Law of the Russian Federation of June 21, 1992, as amended (http://www.legislationline.org/index.php?topic=6&subtopic=0&subsubtopic=0&intst=0&eu=0&country=34
This law was also listed on the Supreme Court site above. 

Laws on the Judiciary (http://theRussiaSite.org/legal/laws.html
This site contains John Fowler's translation of the following laws: 

Law On the Court System of the Russian Federation of Dec. 31, 1996. (http://theRussiaSite.org/legal/laws/courtsystemlaw.html)
 This law was translated as "On the Judicial System of the Russian Federation" on the Supreme Court Site above.

Law On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation of July 21, 1994. (http://theRussiaSite.org/legal/laws/constitutionalcourtlaw.html)
This is another translation of the law listed above under the Constitutional Court site.

Law On Arbitration Courts in the Russian Federation of April 28, 1995. (http://theRussiaSite.org/legal/laws/arbitrationcourtslaw.html)

Legislation (Comprehensive Compilations). Fee-Based.

Garant (http:/garant.ru/nav.php?pid=286&ssid=79)   Although emphasis is on commercial law, coverage is wide, including material not necessarily thought of as specificially business-related. Also available on Lexis, in Library “Intlaw;” File: “RFLaw.”  

Kodeks (http://www2.kodeks.net/eng/)  Emphasis is on commercial law, but as in Garant, the scope is wide.

Commerce-Related Sites

Banking Laws (http://www.gbld.org/country_details.aspx?countryid=30)
From Global Law Database. This site includes the Law on Central Bank (http://www.gbld.org/xml/Russia/Russia_CBL.pdf) and Law on Insolvency of Credit Institutions (http://www.gbld.org/xml.Russia/Russia_ICI.pdf)
BISNIS (http://www.bisnis.doc.gov/bisnis/country/rusfed.htm)
Site of U.S. Trade Center, U.S. Dept. of Commerce’s primary resource center for companies interested in doing business in Russia and other Newly-Independent-States (NIS). Much information on foreign trade, foreign investment, etc. Links to organizations and government bodies involved with business activities in Russia and other Newly-Independent-States (NIS). Includes section on business outlook within specific regions of Russia. Contains a “Legal and Regulatory “ section (http://www.bisnis.doc.gov/bisnis/isa/isa-legal.cfm), which includes, among many useful articles, the following:

Setting up a Business in Russia”  (http://www.bisnis.doc.gov/bisnis/country/020820RSregis.htm)

“Report on Legal Aspects of Doing Business in Russia: Business in Russia Today (”http:www.bisnis.doc.gov/bisnis/country/02071Orvbusrs.htm)

“New Code of Administrative Violations of the Russian Federation: Increased Responsibility of Commercial Organizations and their Managers”

Business-related Legal Acts of the RF http://www.mrsa.ru/menu_e.htm)
This site from the Russian Society of Appraisers includes the following laws:

On Insolvency (Bankruptcy) Act of January 28, 1998; On Limited-Liability Companies, Act of February 8, 1998, as amended July 11, 1998; On Book-Keeping, Act of November 21, 1996; On Securities Market, Act of April 22, 1996; Town-Planning Code; On Joint Stock Companies. (Another translation of this law, by William E. Butler, is listed below in this paper).

Central Bank of Russia (http://www.cbr.ru/eng/)
Homepage provides information on the history and legal status of the bank, as well as on statistics, foreign exchange rates, foreign reserves, etc.

Country Commercial Guide for Russia
From U.S. Commercial Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce. Prepared by the U.S. Embassy staff annually, this guide provides information on trade regulation, marketing, investment climate, etc. 

Electronic Transactions Legislation (http://www.bmck.com/ecommerce/russia-t.htm)
Summaries of enacted and pending legislation on e-commerce. From law firm of Baker & Mckenzie. 

Embassy of the Russian Federation in Washington, D.C. (http://www.russianembassy.org)
This site gives information regarding business activities, including Business Visas, Registration of Documents for Conducting Business Activities in Russia, and the Legalization, Registration, Translation and Obtaining of  Documents on Demand.

Federal Commission on the Securities Market (http://fedcom.ru/fcsm/ewelcome.html)Official site of the Commission includes presidential decrees, government resolutions, annual reports. Contains Information Disclosure Program (http://disclosure.fcsm.ru/English.asp)

Federal Law on Joint-Stock Companies (http://www.fipc.ru/fipctest/law_jsc.html)
Translation of 1995 law by William E. Butler.

Franchising Information 
Summary of legislation and regulations from International Institute for the Unification of Private Law.  

Russian Foreign Investment Promotion Centre
Official government body under the auspices of the Ministry of the Economy. Provides outline of relevant information, including investment legislation, trade regulation, taxation, certification and licensing requirements, and employment rules. Also contains List of Legislative Acts Regulating Foreign Investment  (http://www.fipc.ru/fipc/investment.ru/legislation/acts.htm

Investment Laws (http://www.stateinvest.spb.ru/eng/laws)
From City of St. Petersburg. Dept. of Public Investment. The site includes federal laws, as well as legislation dealing specifically with investment in St. Petersburg. Two of the numerous laws and decrees found on the site are: Law On Foreign Investment in the Russian Federation of July 9, 1999 (http:www.stateinvest.spb.ru/eng/laws.main/9.php3) and Law on Capital Investment in the Russian Federation of February 25, 1999

Leasing (http://www.ifc.org/russianleasing/eng/legis/1.htm)
From International Finance Corporation. Chapter 34 of Civil Code, "On Lease"

Standards (http://www.snip.com/standards/russia/data.htm)
Explanation of Russian Standards System, links to National Standards Organizations. 

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Criminal Law  

Criminal Code. Chapter 16, Chapter 18, Chapter 25
From Russian National Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transexual Site. Includes Article 121, "Infection with a Venereal Disease;" Article 122, "Infection with HIV;" Article 132 "Forced Actions of Sexual Nature;" Article 242 "Unlawful Distribution of Pornographic Materials or Objects."

Criminal Code. Chapter 20.  (http://www.legislationline.org/index.php?topic=13&subtopic=0&subsubtopic=0&intst=0&eu=0&country=34)
From OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. Excerpts from part of Code which deals generally with trafficking in human being. Also includes news updates on legislative activity related to this subject.

Law on Terrorism (1998)  (http://www.legislationline.org/index.php?&topic=4&subtopic=O&subsubtopic=0&intst=0&eu=0&country=34)
From OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights.

Finckenauer, James O. and Yuri A. Voronin. The Threat of Russian Organized Crime. Washington, D.C. 2001. (http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/intdocs.htm)
From U.S. Dept. of Justice. Select this report from "2001" listing of publications. Also available in print format (see under "Print Resources", Criminal Law Section of this paper, above. 

Election System

Democracy.ru (http://democracy.ru/english) 
Site of the NGO, Institute for Election Systems Development IESD). This organization took over most of the activities of the International Foundation for Elections Systems (IEFS) when it withdrew from Russia. The site includes election laws, model laws, resolutions of the Central Election Commission of the RF (http://democracy.ru/english/library/cec), etc. Some specific laws included are:

Law on Political Parties of July 11, 2001.

Law on Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the Right of Citizens of the Russian Federation to Participate in a Referendum
Enacted September 1997, as amended. Replaced 1995 law.

Law on the Election of the President of the Russian Federation (1999)                                                        (http://democracy.ru/english/library/laws/presidelect_eng/index.html)                                   

Law on the Election of Deputies to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (1999)
( http:democracy.ru/english/library/laws/dumaelect_eng/index.html)
Another translation of this law is listed below in this section.

Law on Administrative Liability of Legal Entities for Violations of the Russian Federation Laws on Elections and Referenda

Elections: Russian Federation. (http://www.legislationline.org/index.php?topic=1&subtopic=0&subsubtopic=0&intst=0&eu=0&country=34)
From OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. This site  contains several of the laws also found in the Democracy.ru site listed above in this section.

Election Reports (http://www.osce.org/odihr/documents/reports/election_reports/ru/)     
From OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. Includes reports on the presidential elections of 1996 and 2000.


Russia Federal Forest Code of 1997 (http://forest.ru/eng/legislation/forestcode.html)
From site of Russian NGO "Forest Club".

Federal Law on Energy Saving (http://www.unescap.org/enrd/energy/compend/ceccpart4chapter9.htm)
From U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. This law was first published by the TACIS EC Energy Center, in the Energy Newsletter, No. 8, May 1996.

FAOLEX  (http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/)  
From Food and Agriculture Organization. Database contains national legislation. 
Select subject for searching from list on left. For country, use "Russian Federation" as search term.  Retrieves abstracts of ministerial decrees and orders, laws, treaties, etc. (Full text is usually only in Russian).

Human Rights

Country Reports on Human Rights Practice
From U.S. State Dept. Select year, then country.
NIS Law and Human Rights Organizations by Country. (http://www.civilsoc.org/nisorgs/nislegal.htm)
Select "Russia" from country listing. 

U.S. Committee on Refugees. Country Report. Russian Federation.  (http://www.refugees.org/world/countryrpt/europe/russian_federation.htm)

Intellectual Property
Russian Agency for Patent and Trademark (Rospatent) 
This site provides information on the scientific activities and international cooperation projects of the Agency. It also contains Intellectual Property Legislation (http://www.fips.ru/ruptoen2/laws.htm), including the following laws:

Patent Law  (http://www.fips.ru/ruptoen2/law/patent_law.htm)

Law of the Russian Federation on Trademarks, Service Marks and Appellations of Origin of Goods

Law of the Russian Federation on the Legal Protection of Topograpies of Integrated Circuits

Law of the Russian Federation on the Legal Protection of Computer Programs and Data Bases

Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights (http://www.fips.ru/avpen/docs.htm)

Intelcom Internet Club (http://www.ipr.inage.ru/documents/index.en.html
Annotations of legislation relevant to intellectual property

Intelligence Related Laws and Decrees
Interesting site from Federation of American Scientists. Some translated laws included are: On the Fight Against Terrorism (of July 25, 1998); On Foreign Intelligence, (January 10, 1996); On Information, Informatization, and the Protection of Information, ( February 20, 1995). Also includes many presidential decrees dealing with security issues, statutes of bodies involved with security, and other related material.

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Law on Trophy Art (http://docproj.loyola.edu/rlaw
Law on art which was taken from other countries during World War II and moved to the Soviet Union. 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (http://www.mid.ru/)
Select "English" on bottom of page. Contains Daily News Bulletin, press releases and reports. Select "Materials of Government Agencies" for Reports from various governmental departments, ministries, the Security Council and the President's Office.

Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the United Nations (http://www.un.int/russia/home.htm)
Press releases and statements to the U.N. made by Russian delegates. Also contains material from NATO-Russia Meeting of May 28, 2002 in Rome.

Agreement on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States(CIS) (http://theRussiaSite.org/legal/laws/CISagreement.html)
Unofficial translation by John Fowler.

Charter of the Commonwealth of Independent States (http://theRussiasite.org/helga/laws/CIScharter.html)
Unofficial translation by John Fowler. 


Natlex:Russian Federation (http://natlex.ilo.org/scripts/natlexcgi.exe?lang=E)
Natlex is the database of the International Labor Organization of national legislation on labour, social security and related human rights. Select "Russian Federation" from country list and then select subject. Most of the decrees and laws retrieved are in abstract form, but the following laws are in full text: Law on Trade Unions, Law on Collective Bargaining, and Law on Employment Accident Benefits.

Media and Publishing

Internews.Russia (http://www.internews.ru)
This Russian non-profit site provides legislation, commentaries, and links related to media. Among the included laws are the following: 

Law On Advertising (1995) (http://www.internews.ru/law/advertising_eng/advertising_eng.html)

Law On Communications (1995) (http://www.internews.ru/law/comm_eng/index.html

Law On Mass Media (1991) (http://www.internews.ru/law/massmedia_eng/massmedia_eng.html)

Law On the State Support of the Mass Media and Book-Publishing in the Russian Federation (1995) (http://www.internews.ru/law/support_eng/support_eng.html

MediaLaw.ru (http://www.medialaw.ru/e-index.html
From Moscow Media Law and Policy Institute. Includes Law on Advertising of 1995 (http://medialaw.ru/e-pages/laws/russian/advertising_eng/advertising_eng.html), Law on Mass Media (1995), as last amended March 21, 2002 (http://www.medialaw.ru/e-pages/laws/russian/massmedia_eng/massmedia_eng.html), as well as other items of relevance. 

Post-Soviet Media Law And Policy Newsletter (http://www.vii.org/monroe/)
Published 1993-1999. Full bibliographic information on this journal is given under "Journals" in "Print" Sources of this paper

Communications Law in Transition: A Newsletter (http://pcmlp.socleg.ox.ac.uk/transition/
Successor to Post-Soviet Media Law and Policy Newsletter. Published by Programme in Comparative Media Law and Policy, Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, Wolfson College, Oxford University, and the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law. 

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Religion and Law Research Consortium (http://www.religlaw.org/)
From OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. Search by using "Russian Federation" as search term in search box. Retrieve laws on religion, decisions of the Constitutional Court on religious matters, reports on the state of religion, etc. Includes Law on the Freedom on Conscience and Religious Associations (http://www.religlaw.org/template.php3?id=72) and Law on Charitable Organizations (http://www.religlaw.org/template.php3?id=71).

Emory International Law Review. Special Issue "Proselytism in Russia." Winter 1998. (http://www.law.emory.edu/EILR/volumes/win98/wintoc.html)

This issue contains articles and legislation, including the following: 

Federal Law on Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations (http://www.law.emory.edu/EILR/special/97law.htm)  Translated by Lawrence A. Uzzell. Copyright Keston Institute, Oxford, England. Another translation of this law is found in the Religion and Law Research Consortium site above. 

Law of the Tula Region on Missionary (Religious) Activity on the Territory of the Tula Region (http://www.emory.edu/EILR/special/tula.html)  Translation provided by Keston Institute, Oxford, England.

Caesar's Sword: the 1997 Law of the Russian Federation on the Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations. By T. Jeremy Gunn. (http://www.law.emory.EILR/volumes/win98/gunn.html
Provided by Keston Institute, Oxford, England. 

Religious Freedom World Report: Russia (http://www.religiousfreedom.com/wrpt/fsu/russia.htm
From International Coalition for Religious Freedom.

Religious Freedom Nation Profile: Russia (http://religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu/nationaprofiles/Russia/rbodies.html)
From Religious Freedom Page, University of Virginia. Information on religious bodies, religious freedom status, links, bibliography. 


Law on the Railway System of August 25, 1995 (http://www.eng.mps.ru/documents/index.html?he_id=163)

News and Articles on Legal Matters

Russian Law News (http://www.russianlaws.com/)
From law firm of LeBoeuf, Lamb, Greene & McRae, L.L.P.)

St. Petersburg Civil Law Center (http://www.balfort.com/)
Created by Civil Law Department of the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. Contains articles on legal matters. Select "Precedents" for annotations on court cases. 

Tax and Legal Center (http://www.conseco.ru/eng
News focusing on tax issues.

Russia Journal (http://russiajournal.com/index.htm)
The daily version provides coverage of general news, with emphasis on business matters. Free access to current, and some earlier stories. The weekly version (http://www.therussiajournal.com/) also emphasizes the business sphere. Free access for overview of contents, but fee required for full text of most material. 

Moscow Times (http://www.moscowtimes.ru/)
Coverage includes general news, but emphasis on business related matters. Current issue is free. Free archive search, but for stories more than one week old, a fee is required.

Yabloko (http://www.eng.yabloko.ru/index.html)
This is the site of the Russian Democratic Party "Yabloko."

Search Engines

Yandex (http://www.yandex.com/)
Good retrieval engine.

Rambler (rambler.ru)
Although the "search" button is not indicated as such in English, using English-language terms does retrieve material. 

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Other Useful Sites

Below is a sampling of many good sites which provide links to Russian legal and sometimes other sources. Much of the linked material which the sites provide regarding Russian government, politics, law, etc., is in Russian only, but there are also useful English-language references included in them as well. 

theRussiaSite (http://theRussiasite.org/)
This nicely-organized site provides some laws and treaties in translation, several of which have been noted in this paper. Maintained by John Fowler. 

Global Legal Information Institute (GLIN) (http://www.loc.gov/law/guide/russia.html)
From U.S. Library of Congress. 

Cornell University Law Library. Legal Information Institute (LII) (http://www.law.cornell.edu/world/europe.htm#russia

University of Michigan. Foreign Government Resources.Russia (http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/foreur.html#russia)

NYU Law Library

Open Directory Project (http://dmoz.org/Regional/Europe/Russia/Government/Law/)
Edited by Alexander Nikiforov (Inforus), this site has an extensive collection of links to Russian law and government sites. 

GEN(Global English As a Second Language Network) (http://dirs.globalesl.net/cat/106850)
Interesting listing of links.

Guides and Background Sources

"Guide to Russian Legal Research" (http://www.llrx.com/features/russia.htm
By Marina Konioukhova. Detailed outline of Russian government and legal structures. Most of the links are to Russian-language sites, but the useful commentary is in English.

Legislationline.org (http://www.legislationline.org
From Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). Select "Russia" from country list. Provides brief overview of the Constitution and legal system. Links to important government bodies. The site also includes Russian Federation laws relating to rule-of-law and human rights, as well as news updates on legislative activity in these areas.

The World Fact Book (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/)
From U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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