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Features - International Commercial Arbitration: Locating the Resources

By Jean M. Wenger, Published on June 1, 2000

The most recent version of this article is available at http://www.llrx.com/features/arbitration2.htm.  You will be automatically redirected to that page shortly.

Jean M. Wenger is the Reference Librarian for Government Documents/Foreign & International Law at the Cook County Law Library in Chicago. Jean has authored a number of web-based foreign and international law research guides and has spoken at professional conferences on Internet training issues and international trade research. Her publications include the chapter on International Economic Law in the ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law. Jean received her B.A. from St. Mary’s College of Minnesota, J.D. from the University of Illinois College of Law, and M.L.I.S. from Rosary College. She is admitted to the state bar of Illinois. She contributes an Internet column to the RIPS Librarian, and has been a long time member of the Foreign, Comparative & International Law SIS. Jean is also an editor of the Chicago Association of Law Libraries (CALL) Bulletin.


Table of Contents

I. Introduction
A. Primers
B. MetaResources
II. Treaties
Treaty Compilations
III. Arbitral Institutions
A. Administering Institutions
1. International Institutions
2. National Institutions
Compilations of Arbitral Institutions
B. Arbitrators
C. Cooperative Agreements between Arbitral Institutions
IV. Arbitration Rules
Arbitration Rules Compilations
V. National Law
National Law Compilations
VI. Drafting Arbitration Clauses - Model Clauses
VII. Decisions/Awards
VIII. Specialized Arbitration
A. Intellectual Property
B. Maritime
IX. Locating Literature
A. Online Library Catalogs
B. Bibliographies
C. Periodical Indexes
D. Journals/Periodicals
X. Associations

I. Introduction

Arbitration is one of several forms of dispute resolution for international commercial agreements. In its broadest sense, arbitration is a vehicle of dispute resolution in which parties to a contract select a neutral arbitrator (or a panel of arbitrators) to present their dispute for a legally binding ruling. Arbitration is often selected for the reasons of confidentiality, and to eliminate the uncertainties in the choice of arbitrator and forum. The use of arbitration has increased along with the growth of international trade and commerce.

International commercial arbitration has many different issues and the attorney needs to have access to numerous resources to make informed decisions. Since no individual format provides exhaustive coverage of international commercial resources, this guide presents both print and electronic resources.

This introduction offers both primers and a selection of the large, comprehensive compilations of international arbitration resources. This guide is further divided into functional component parts: treaties, institutions, rules, national laws, awards, and literature.  To facilitate quickly identifying resources, each part of this guide will list individual titles and those relevant components of the comprehensive compilations, or metaresources.

A. Primers

American Arbitration Association (AAA) - Focus Area: International
A collection of pertinent links for foreign arbitration including Drafting Dispute Resolution Clauses, Beginner's Guide to ADR, and Fact Sheets for international issues.
ForeignCounsel.com
Select “International Arbitration” for a primer with embedded links. From the Law Offices of Charles H. Veigel, P.S. and the Law Office of Richard T. Brothers.

Domke on Commercial Arbitration, rev. ed. Gabriel M. Wilner, West Group, 1983-

International Commercial Arbitration in the United States: Commentary & Materials. Gary B. Born, Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1994.

Craig, W. Lawrence. Trends and Developments in the Laws and Practice of International Commercial Arbitration (1995)
Mr. Craig, an expert in international commercial arbitration and partner at Coudert Brothers, takes a comparative approach in examining recent developments in arbitration rules and legislation.

Larsen, Clifford. “International Commercial ArbitrationASIL Insight (April 1997)

Hill, Richard. “Primer on International Arbitration” (July 1995)

B. MetaResources

Arbitration CD‑ROM: Resources on International Commercial Arbitration. Kluwer Law International, 1998
A subscription Folio-based product providing fully searchable legislation, rules, awards, case law, arbitration treaties, conventions, commentary, complete commentary on the New York Convention, and bibliographies. Updated twice a year.
Eye on International Business Law
Collection of links from Dr. Klaus Peter Berger, LL.M., Institute for International Business Law, University of Muenster.
interarb.com
An information provider in the subject areas of arbitration and dispute resolution with links to database, electronic newsletter, journals, and other texts. Includes WWW Virtual Library: Arbitration Database; European Arbitration newsletter; Model Arbitration Law Quarterly Reports; and the interarb publications list.
International ADR
International ADR is an electronic forum providing links for international alternative dispute resolution resources including treaties, national arbitration laws, judicial decisions and arbitral awards, institutions and rules, model clauses, and arbitrators.
International Commercial Arbitration
An extensive collection of links to international conventions and national arbitration resources by Prof. Dr. Marianne Roth, LL.M., Chair for Civil Law and Civil Procedure, International Litigation and International Trade, University of Kiel.
International Commercial Arbitration: Resources in Print and Electronic Format
An extensive listing of resources from Lyonette Louis-Jacques, Foreign and International Law Librarian and Lecturer in Law, University of Chicago, D’Angelo Law Library.
Kluwer Law International Arbitration Site
Select “Related Sites” for Internet Resources on Arbitration and ADR. Select “Contents” for Conventions, Legislation and Rules, Cases, Commentary.
La Conciliation, La Médiation Et L'arbitrage
An extensive guide with annotated links. In French.
Lex Mercatoria - Commercial Law Related - Subject Index for Dispute Settlement
Includes links for alternative dispute resolution, arbitration, institutional arbitration, national arbitration instruments, arbitration involving states, intellectual property disputes, conciliation & mediation, external dispute resolution links.
T.M.C. Asser Institute for Private and Public International Law - International Commercial Arbitration
The T.M.C. Asser Institute, founded by the Dutch universities to promote education and research in the fields of law in which the Institute specializes including international commercial arbitration.
The International Arbitration Kit: A Compilation of Basic and Frequently Requested Documents. Completely rev. 4th ed. Compiled and edited by Laura Ferris Brown. American Arbitration Association, 1993.
Includes texts of conventions, treaties, U.S. laws pertaining to arbitration, rules and procedures, and inter-association agreements.
International Commercial Arbitration. Clive M. Schmitthoff, ed. Oceana Publications, 1974-
Binder 1 contains multilateral conventions, regional and international conventions and instruments. Binder 2 contains ICC and other arbitration associations, and national rules and enactments (in alpha order). Binder 3-5 contains national rules and enactments (in alpha order).
Smit’s Guides to International Arbitration, Hans Smit, ed. Juris Publishing
Eleven volume set covering: arbitration rules, roster of arbitrators, treaties, national laws, arbitration and the courts and an international bibliography.
The World Arbitration Reporter, Smit, Hans and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Juris Publishing, 1986-
Vol. 1: International Legal Framework; vol. 2-2B: National Legislation; vol. 3: International Arbitral Institutions and Rules; vol. 4-4A: Rules of National Arbitration Institutions.

II. Treaties

United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards of 1958 (New York Convention)
330 U.N.T.S. 3, 21 U.S.T. 2517 (June 10, 1958).
Annotated New York Convention
Annotated N.Y. Convention with case law from around the world. Provided at the Kluwer Law International Arbitration Site.
Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States (Washington Convention)
575 U.N.T.S. 159 17 U.S. T. 1270 (March 18, 1965). Established the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
Inter-American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration (Panama Convention)
Organization of American States, Treaty Series, no. 42.

Inter-American Convention of Extraterritorial Validity of Foreign Judgements and Arbitral Awards (Montevideo Convention)

Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
Adopted July 29, 1899. Replaced by convention of Oct. 18, 1907 as between contracting parties to the later convention.
Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
Adopted October 18, 1907.
European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration
484 U.N.T.S. 349 (Apr. 21, 1961)
Agreement relating to application of the European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration
523 U.N.T.S. 93 (Dec. 17, 1962)
European Convention Providing a Uniform Law on Arbitration (Council of Europe, ETS No. 56)
Opened to signature January 1, 1966; has not entered into force.

Convention on the Settlement by Arbitration of Civil Law Disputes Resulting from Relations of Economic and Scientific-Technical Cooperation (Moscow Convention)

Inter-American Convention of Extraterritorial Validity of Foreign Judgements and Arbitral Awards (Montevideo Convention)

World Trade Organization (WTO)
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) came into being in 1948 as a multilateral instrument to promote trade. In 1993, the Uruguay Round of GATT, established the World Trade Organization as an international organization. The WTO deals with the rules of trade between nations and supports the multilateral trading system through the WTO agreements.

Treaty Compilations

International ADR

The International Arbitration Kit: A Compilation of Basic and Frequently Requested Documents Completely rev. 4th ed. Compiled and edited by Laura Ferris Brown. American Arbitration Association, 1993.
Includes texts of conventions, treaties.

International Arbitration Treaties. Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Juris Publishing, 1998. Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration

International Commercial Arbitration. Clive M. Schmitthoff, ed. Oceana Publications, 1974-
Binder 1 contains multilateral conventions, regional and international conventions and instruments.
The World Arbitration Reporter, Smit, Hans and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Juris Publishing, 1986-
Vol. 1: International Legal Framework.

III. Arbitral Institutions

Arbitral institutions provide websites with multilingual versions of their rules and regulations, sample model arbitration clauses, relevant national legislation, and panels of experts.

Lucash, Richard M. Arbitration in International Computer Contracts
Lucash, Gesmer & Updegrove is a law firm that provides legal services to business clients involved in information technologies.

Nygh, P. E. Choice of Forum and Law in International Commercial Arbitration. Kluwer Law International, 1997.

Park, William W. International Forum Selection. Kluwer Law International, 1995.
An in-depth analysis of the factors and considerations in selecting a forum for arbitration. Documentary appendices include model clauses, arbitration treaties, and translation of national arbitration laws.
UNCITRAL Notes on Organizing Arbitral Proceedings
These non-binding notes are aimed at helping practitioners better organize and plan for arbitration by addressing FAQs. Focusing on international arbitration, they are to be useful with or without the involvement of an arbitral institution.

A. Administering Institutions

1. International Institutions

The Commercial Arbitration and Mediation Center for the Americas (CAMCA )
CAMCA is designed to provide commercial parties involved in the free trade area of NAFTA with an international forum for the resolution of private commercial disputes.
The Inter-American Commercial Arbitration Commission (IACAC)
The IACAC established and administers a system for settlement, by arbitration or conciliation, of international commercial disputes in the Western Hemisphere.
International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes
Pursuant to the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (1966), ICSID provides facilities for the conciliation and arbitration of disputes between member countries and investors who qualify as nationals of other member countries.
International Court of Arbitration, International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
An international arbitral institution composed of members around the world.
Permanent Court of Arbitration (The Hague)
The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an international organization providing services for resolving disputes between States, including disputes between States and private parties and those involving intergovernmental organizations. The PCA site contains information about its services, model clauses, and rules. The parties to the 1899 and/or 1907 Conventions for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes comprise the members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration.

2. National Institutions

American Arbitration Association

Australian Centre for International Commercial Arbitration

British Columbia International Commercial Arbitration Centre

The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Geneva

Croatia - Permanent Arbitration Court at the Croatian Chamber of Commerce

German Institution of Arbitration - Deutsche Institution für Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit

Japan Commercial Arbitration Association
Under “Arbitration” link find Q&A, “Japan as the Venue of Arbitration, rules and regulations, and standard arbitration clause.

Kuala Lumpur Regional Centre for Arbitration

London Court of International Arbitration
“Introductory Brochure” is an overview of arbitration.

Mexico - Centro de Arbitraje de México

Singapore International Arbitration Centre

Stockholm Chamber of Commerce - Arbitration Institute (SCC)

Compilations of Arbitral Institutions

InternationalADR
Select “Institutions & Rules” for a Directory of Institutions & Rules.
International Commercial Arbitration, Clive M. Schmitthoff, ed. Oceana Publications, 1974-
Binder 2 contains, in part, information about ICC and other arbitration associations.
Juris International - Dispute Resolution Centres
Links to institutions arranged by region and searchable.
The World Arbitration Reporter. Smit, Hans and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Juris Publishing, 1986-
Vol. 3: International Arbitral Institutions and Rules.

B. Arbitrators

No comprehensive, inclusive listing of arbitrators exist, and there are no standardized qualifications. The following sources provide some preliminary guidance in identifying arbitrators.

Roster of International Arbitrators (Guide to International Arbitrators, 3rd Ed). Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Juris Publishing.
Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration.
WWW Virtual Library: ARBITRATION: Listings: Arbitrators
Alphabetical listing of arbitrators. Entries are self-appointed and not comprehensive.
The Relevance of Expertise in Commercial Arbitration
Explains the current and potential future roles that nonlegal technical experts play in international commercial arbitration. Originally presented by Geoffrey M. Beresford Hartwell at the session of Working Group II at the 14th ICCA Congress on 5 May 1998 - Paris, France.
Hill, Richard. “Constituting Arbitral Tribunals in Hi-Tech Cases” (May 1995)
Discusses the pros and cons of the methods used to select arbitrators in hi-tech cases.

C. Cooperative Agreements between Arbitral Institutions

British Columbia International Commercial Arbitration Centre

Inter-Association Agreements Concluded Between the American Arbitration Association and Other ADR Institutions

Japan Commercial Arbitration Association
Listing of arbitral institutions with which JCAA concluded agreements.
Permanent Arbitration Court at the Croatian Chamber of Commerce
Text of agreements including agreement concluded with AAA.
The International Arbitration Kit: A Compilation of Basic and Frequently Requested Documents. Completely rev. 4th ed. Compiled and edited by Laura Ferris Brown. (New York: American Arbitration Association, 1993).
See pp. 301-385 for text of inter-association agreements concluded between AAA and other arbitral institutions.

IV. Arbitration Rules

Arbitral institutions have their own rules. The rules of international and regional institutions are presented here. National arbitral institutions promulgate rules that can be found at the resources listed in Section III.

AAA International Arbitration Rules
As Amended and effective on April 1, 1997.
CAMCA - Commercial Arbitration and Mediation Center for the Americas - Mediation and Arbitration Rules
Rules effective March 15, 1996.
IACAC - Rules of Procedure of the Inter-American Arbitration Commission
As amended and in effect July 1, 1988.
IBA - Supplementary Rules Governing the Presentation and Reception of Evidence in International Commercial Arbitration
From the International Bar Association (IBA). Entered into force May 28, 1983.
ICC - International Court of Arbitration
Text of rules effective January 1, 1998. Available in English and French.
ICC - Pre-arbitral Referee Rules
Rules established for this procedure allow parties to apply to a "referee" for urgent provisional measures in relation to a dispute.
ICSID Rules
Rules of Procedure for the Institution of Conciliation and Arbitration Proceedings (Institution Rules); Rules of Procedure for Arbitration Proceedings (Arbitration Rules); Rules of Procedure for Conciliation Proceedings (Conciliation Rules).
ICSID Additional Facility Rules
These rules authorize the ICSID Secretariat to administer selected types of proceedings between States and foreign nationals that fall outside the scope of the Convention.
Permanent Court of Arbitration Rules of Procedure (Hague)
Includes the Optional Rules for Arbitrating Disputes between Two States (1992); Optional Rules for Arbitrating Disputes between Two Parties of which only one is a State (1993); Optional Rules for Arbitration Involving International Organizations and States (1996); Optional Rules for Arbitration between International Organizations and Private Parties (1996); Optional Conciliation Rules (1996); Optional Rules of Procedure for Fact‑finding Commissions of Inquiry (1997).

Arbitration Rules Compilations

Arbitration Rules - International Institutions. 1997.
Arbitration Rules - National Institutions. 1997-
A Chart Comparing International Arbitration Rules. 1998.
Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Juris Publishing. Three individual titles in the Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration.
InternationalADR
Select “Institutions and Rules” for extensive listing.
The World Arbitration Reporter, Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Juris Publishing, 1986-
Vol. 3: International Arbitral Institutions and Rules; vol. 4-4A: Rules of National Arbitration Institutions.

V. National Law

Location of arbitration is often important in determining the procedural law applied to the arbitration. National arbitration laws are frequently found in a country’s code of civil procedure, the judicature act, or the law exists as a separate arbitration act.

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law - UNCITRAL
Select “Conventions, Model Laws and Other Texts” for UNCITRAL texts. Select “Preparatory Documents” for documents from Working Group on Arbitration (32nd session, 20‑31 March 2000, Vienna).
UNCITRAL Secretariat Explanation of Model Law
Prepared by the secretariat of UNCITRAL for informational purposes only.

Australian International Arbitration Act 1974

Canadian Commercial Arbitration Act

Arbitration Law of the People's Republic of China

English Arbitration Act 1996

Arbitration of International Commercial Disputes Under English Law
David Fraser of the Dispute Resolution Group, Baker & McKenzie, 1998.
The Arbitration of International Technology Disputes Under the English Arbitration Act 1996"
Gary L. Benton and Richard J. Rogers. Originally published in 13 Arbitration International 361 (1997).
France - New Code of Civil Procedure
Arts. 1442-1507. From Legifrance.
The New German Arbitration Law, Tenth Book of the German Code of Civil Procedure (Zivilprozeßordnung; ZPO).
Institute for International Business Law at the University of Muenster. In English translation.

Hong Kong Arbitration Ordinance

Mexican Commercial Code. Articles 1415 - 1463.
Select “Documentos de Arbitraje.”

Book Four of the Netherlands Code of Civil Procedure - Arbitration

New Zealand Arbitration Act 1996/99

The Swedish Arbitration Act of 1999 (SFS 1999:116)

Switzerland
Scroll down to Chapter 12, Arbitrage international. Available in French, German and Italian.

United States Code - Title 9: Arbitration

Uniform Arbitration Act (United States)
Text of uniform act with links to states that have adopted the act.

National Law Compilations

Schaefer, Jan K. “New Solutions for Interim Measures of Protection in International Commercial Arbitration: English, German and Hong Kong Law Compared
Electronic Journal of Comparative Law (Vol. 2.2 August 1998)
International ADR - Country List
Extensive listing of national arbitration laws, institutions and digest of recent judicial decisions.
International Commercial Arbitration. Clive M. Schmitthoff, ed. Oceana Publications, 1974-
Binder 2 contains national rules and enactments (A-B). Binder 3-5 contains additional national rules and enactments (C-Z).
National Arbitration Laws, Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Juris Publishing, 1986-
Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration.
The World Arbitration Reporter. Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, eds. Juris Publishing, 1986-
Vol. 2-2A. National Legislation.
International Handbook on Commercial Arbitration. Jan Paulsson, ed. Kluwer Law International, 1984-
Contains national reports and translated texts of national laws.
Yearbook on Commercial Arbitration. Albert Jan van den Berg, ed. Kluwer Law International, v. 1- 1976-
National Reports, including text of national arbitration laws, were included through vol. XII (1987). Subsequently, national reports are included in the International Handbook on Commercial Arbitration.

VI. Drafting Arbitration Clauses - Model Clauses

Check links to arbitral institutions in Section III for additional model clauses not included in this section.

American Arbitration Association
Model clauses included in International Arbitration Rules. Also, see Drafting Dispute Resolution Clauses under Focus Area: International.
The Freshfields Guide to Arbitration and ADR, 2nd rev. ed. Jan Paulsson et al. Kluwer Law International, 1999.
A practical guide for drafting clauses in international contracts.

Geneva Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Switzerland)

International ADR
Discusses use of model clauses with link for “Directory of Model Clauses.”
Permanent Court of Arbitration Model Clauses (Hague)
Several model clauses available in English, French and Spanish.

VII. Decisions/Awards

Decisions are not widely published. Due to the confidential nature of the arbitral process, the names of parties, and any identifying features of awards are often omitted in published decisions.

Annotated New York Convention
Annotated N.Y. Convention caselaw from around the world. Provided at the Kluwer Law International Arbitration Site.
ICSID Cases
Lists concluded and pending cases with selected texts online.
Case Laws on UNCITRAL Texts (CLOUT)
Select abstracts. CLOUT abstracts include Model Arbitration Law (MAL) cases.
Index to CLOUT case abstracts that relate to Model Arbitration Law (MAL)
Arranged by MAL article. Compiled by M.J. Chapman, 1999.
Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards, 1974-1985. Compiled by Sigvard Jarvin, Yves Derains.
ICC Pub. No 433.
Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards Vol. II (1986-1990). Commented and indexed by S. Jarvin, Y. Derains and J-J. Arnaldez.
ICC Pub. No. 514
Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards Vol. III (1991-1995). Commented and indexed by J. J. Arnaldez, Y. Derains and D. Hascher
ICC Pub. No. 553
Journal de Droit International. Paris, Librarie générale de droit et de jurisprudence, v. 1- 1874-
Regularly includes arbitral awards.
Lloyd's Arbitration Reports, London: Lloyd's of London Press Ltd., 1988-
Resource for international arbitration court decisions and awards.
Mealey’s International Arbitration Report. Mealey Publications.
Monthly publication containing commentary and notes about recent cases with selected texts of arbitration awards and judicial decisions.
Reports of International Arbitral Awards (United Nations). Vol. 1 (1948)-
Awards are printed in English or French.
Model Arbitration Law Quarterly Reports
Search the table of contents online.
WTO Dispute Resolution
Includes panel reports, appellate body reports, and adopted panel reports within the framework of GATT and WTO.
Yearbook, Commercial Arbitration. Kluwer law International, 1976- ,Annual, v. 1- 1976-
Broad coverage of international commercial arbitration topics including arbitral awards, rules, recent developments, court decisions on the New York Convention, and recent articles.
International Law Reports. Lauterpacht, ed.
Includes only arbitral awards rendered in cases between states that involve application of public international law.

VIII. Specialized Arbitration

A. Intellectual Property

The World Intellectual Property Organization Arbitration and Mediation Center
The WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center, established in 1994, is part of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in Geneva, Switzerland. The Center offers “arbitration and mediation services for the resolution of commercial disputes between private parties involving intellectual property.” Select “Arbitration” link for text of WIPO arbitration rules, expedited arbitration rules, sample contract clauses, and a guide to arbitration.
Benton, Gary L. and Paul S. Schmidtberger. Intellectual Property Disputes under the Amended AAA International Rules
Written by attorneys at Coudert Brothers

B. Maritime

International Maritime Organisation (IMAO) ICC-CMI
The ICC and the Comité Maritime International (CMI) have jointly produced a set of rules for maritime arbitration. Model clauses, administrative charges and a description of the process is also available.

IX. Locating Literature

A. Online Library Catalogs

Your law library's online catalog is a valuable gateway to resources on international commercial arbitration. The online library catalog is an excellent way to identify books, periodicals, conference proceedings and documents written by leading practitioners, scholars, and issued by organizations and government agencies. These publications can be searched using a variety of access points, including title, keyword, author, or subject.

Web-based Catalogs:

Library of Congress Online Catalog

Z39.50 Gateway
Z39.50 is a national computer protocol. This page includes links to the online library catalogs of institutions using the Z39.50 standard.
webCats-Web-based Online Catalogs
Excellent geographic arrangement of web‑based library catalogs from around the world. Libraries in the U.S. arranged by state or in alphabetical order.

Suggestions for searches described below:

Title search: most systems require exact title. If title searching retrieves "No Records," try a keyword search.

Keyword search: most flexible approach; combine terms to search for keywords in the title, author or subject fields. Many treatises and texts are available on international commercial arbitration, some focusing on arbitration within a particular country, or arbitration

Author search: names of individuals or names of organizations. Examples of organizations or institutions as authors:

International Council for Commercial Arbitration
International Chamber of Commerce. Court of Arbitration

Subject search: requires use of exact Library of Congress Subject Headings. Some suggested headings include:

Arbitration and award, International
Arbitration and award, International --Cases
Arbitration and award --Pacific Area
Conflict of laws --Arbitration and award
Arbitration, International
Arbitration and award --Latin America
Arbitration and award, International --Periodicals
Dispute resolution (Law)-International aspects

Remember that terminology differs in the international and foreign law arena. For example, American-English and British-English will have spelling variations resulting in different search results. Examples include: center/centre or organization/organisation.

B. Bibliographies

Bibliography - Kluwer Law International Arbitration Site
A bibliography that can be searched by term or article of the New York Convention. Provided in cooperation with the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
Commercial Arbitration: An International Bibliography, Rev. & Exp. 2nd Ed. Hans Smit and Vratislav Pechota, ed. Juris Publishing, 1999-
Series: Smit's Guides to International Arbitration. Updated Annually.
InternationalADR
Select “Publications” for a bibliography on international arbitration including recent books and articles, and a basic library of standard resources.
UNCITRAL Bibliography of Recent Writings Relating to the Work of UNCITRAL
Select Bibliography. Consolidation of Bibliographies Related to the Work of UNCITRAL (May 1993 - Mar. 1997), and the bibliography not yet consolidated: A/CN.9/452 of 27 March 1998. Scroll down to Section III: International Commercial Arbitration and Conciliation for entries listed in alpha author order

C. Periodical Indexes

Northern Light
An Internet search engine that searches the web and/or special collections consisting of information from 5,400 premium sources. Arranges hits into custom search folders™.
UnCoverWeb
Search for articles from over 18,000 multidisciplinary journals since Fall 1988. Provides a fax document delivery service for a fee. Indexes many international and American legal periodicals including Arbitration International; Journal of International Arbitration; International Company and Commercial Law Review.

Additionally search for articles in Index to Legal Periodicals, Legal Trac, and the Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals.

D. Journals/Periodicals

In addition to the specialized journals listed in this section, many excellent articles are written for American law reviews.

Arbitration & the Law: AAA General Counsel's Annual Report. American Arbitration Association. Office of the General Counsel. Office of the General Counsel, American Arbitration Association, 1982-
An annual publication covering recent developments in arbitration, including international arbitration.
American Review of International Arbitration
A Publication of the Parker School of Foreign & Comparative Law, Columbia University

Arbitration International. Kluwer Law International, Vol. 1- 1985-

Arbitration Journal. American Arbitration Association, [1937-1993].
Continued by: Dispute Resolution Journal. The Association, 1993-
European Arbitration (EA)
EA is a free electronic newsletter providing information on current happenings in the arbitration field. Searchable.
ICC International Court of Arbitration Bulletin. ICC International Court of Arbitration. Vol. 1 - 1990-
Extracts from ICC arbitral Award, ICC Commission on International Arbitration Reports, articles on international arbitration.
International Arbitration Advisor
Text of the Coudert Brothers - Arbitration Practice firm newsletter from 1998.
Journal of International Arbitration. Kluwer Law International. Vol. 1- 1984-
New developments, case notes, and regional overviews in international arbitration.

X. Associations

International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA)
A nongovernmental organization established in 1969 to promote the use of commercial arbitration in international trade disputes. The ICCA publishes the ICCA congress series which focus on different issues in commercial arbitration. The first congress was published in 1983; the ninth congress was published in 1999.