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Features - Researching U.S. Treaties and Agreements

By Marci Hoffman, Published on May 14, 2001

Marci Hoffman, International & Foreign Law Librarian, UC Berkeley Law Library and EISIL Project Manager.  See also Marci's previous guides on LLRX.com


Table of Contents

I. Introduction
A. International Treaties and Agreements
B. U.S. Treaties and Agreements
C. Ratification and Implementation of U.S. Treaties and Agreements
II. Researching U.S. Treaties and Agreements
A. Research Guides
B. Forms of Publication
C. Indexes and Finding Tools
D. Full-text Sources
E. Status, Updating and Ratification Information
F. Background Information (Treaty Interpretation and Legislative Histories)
G. Treaties by Popular Names
III. U.S. Treaties and Agreements on the Internet

I. Introduction

A. International Treaties and Agreements

Treaties can be referred to by a number of different names: international conventions, international agreements, covenants, final acts, charters, protocols, pacts, accords, and constitutions for international organizations. Usually these different names have no legal significance in international law. Treaties may be bilateral (two parties) or multilateral (between several parties) and a treaty is usually only binding on the parties to the agreement. An agreement "enters into force" when the terms for entry into force as specified in the agreement are met. Bilateral treaties usually enter into force when both parties agree to be bound as of a certain date. For more information on treaties, see Thomas Buergenthal & Sean Murphy, Public International Law in a Nutshell (3rd ed., St Paul, MN: West Group, 2002) or Encyclopedia of Public International Law, vol. 7, pps. 459-514 (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1981-).

B. U.S. Treaties and Agreements

“Domestically, treaties to which the United States is a party are equivalent in status to Federal legislation, forming part of what the Constitution calls ‘the supreme Law of the Land.’ Yet, the word treaty does not have the same meaning in the United States and in international law.”1 The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties defines a treaty “as an international agreement concluded between States in written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments and whatever its particular designation.”2 Under United States law, however, there is a distinction made between the terms treaty and executive agreement. “In the United States, the word treaty is reserved for an agreement that is made ‘by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate’ (Article II, section 2, clause 2 of the Constitution). International agreements not submitted to the Senate are known as ‘executive agreements’ in the United States.”3 Generally, a treaty is a binding international agreement and an executive agreement applies in domestic law only. Under international law, however, both types of agreements are considered binding. Regardless of whether an international agreement is called a convention, agreement, protocol, accord, etc.; if it is submitted to the Senate for advice and consent, it is considered a treaty under United States law.

For a brief overview of this issue, see Frederic Kirgis, International Agreements and U.S. Law, ASIL Insight, No. 10, May 1997.  To learn more about the Senate’s treaty making powers, see the Senate’s web site.

C. Ratification and Implementation of U.S. Treaties and Agreements

When conducting U.S. treaty research, it is important to understand the ratification and implementation process. Negotiation of treaties and international agreements is the responsibility of the Executive Branch. The U.S. Department of State provides the Foreign Service with detailed instructions for the negotiation and conclusion of treaties and international agreements. These instructions are part of the Foreign Affairs Manual, Circular 175.4 Circular 175 summarizes the constitutional requirements for determining whether an international agreement should be considered a treaty or an agreement. It outlines the general procedures for negotiation, signature, publication, and registration of treaties and international agreements.

1. Outline of the Treaty Making Process:

  • Secretary of State authorizes negotiation
  • U.S. representative negotiate
  • Agree on terms, and upon authorization of Secretary of State, sign treaty
  • President submits treaty to Senate
  • Senate Foreign Relations Committee considers treaty and reports to Senate
  • Senate considers and approves by 2/3 majority
  • President proclaims entry into force

2. Outline of the Agreement Making Process:

  • Secretary of State authorizes negotiation
  • U.S. representatives negotiate
  • Agree on terms, and upon authorization of Secretary of State, sign agreement
  • Three types of agreements5
  • Agreement enters into force
  • President transmits agreement to Congress (pursuant to Case-Zablocki Act6)

For more information on the ratification and implementation process, see the following:

Treaties and Other International Agreements: The Role of the United States Senate: A Study (prepared for the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, S. Print 106-71, (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001) [Note: this document is 488 pages, PDF]

Robert E. Dalton, "National Treaty Law and Practice: United States," in National Treaty Law And Practice: Dedicated to the Memory of Monroe Leigh (Duncan B. Hollis et al. eds., Leiden; Boston: M. Nijhoff, 2005). The first edition of this chapter is available on the web, National Treaty Law and Practice: United States, in National Treaty Law and Practice: Austria, Chile, Colombia, Japan, the Netherlands, United States (Washington, DC: American Society of International Law, 1999).

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II. Researching U.S. Treaties and Agreements

Usually, the researcher is faced with the following research problems:

  • Locating the text of the treaty or agreement.
  • Obtaining status and ratification information.
  • Looking at the intent through background documents (negotiation, legislative history).

A. Research Guides

These guides are good places to begin when researching U.S. treaties and agreements. Most contain information on both print and electronic sources.

  1. Cohen, Morris L., et. al., How to Find the Law (9th ed., St. Paul: MN: West, 1989). See chapter 15 "International Law" for a detailed discussion of treaty research including treaty interpretation.

  2. Jacobstein, Myron J. and Roy M. Mersky. Fundamentals of Legal Research. (8th ed., Westbury, NY: Foundation Press, 2002).   See chapter 20, "International Law", for a good discussion of treaty research sources.

  3. Guide to International Legal Research (Newark, N.J.: LexisNexis, 2002-). Issued annually.

  4. Germain, Claire M. Germain's Transnational Law Research (Ardsely-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Transnational Juris Publications, 1991-).

  5. Rehberg, Jeanne, "Finding Treaties and Other International Agreements," in Accidental Tourist on the New Frontier: An Introductory Guide to Global Legal Research (Rehberg & Popa eds., Littleton, CO: Rothman, 1998).

  6. Thorpe, Suzanne, "A Guide to International Legal Bibliography," (chapter 2) in Contemporary Practice of Public International Law (Schaffer and Synder, eds., New York: Oceana, 1997).

  7. Web guides:

B. Forms of Publication

Until 1950, U.S. treaties appeared regularly after proclamation in Statutes at Large (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., 1789-). Pre-1950 treaties can also be found in Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949 (Bevans, ed., Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., 1968-1976). This 13 volume set is commonly cited by the compilers' name, Bevans. In 1950, United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (UST) (Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of State, 1950-) became the official source for all U.S. treaties and agreements. Several volumes are published annually, each with a non-cumulative subject and country index. Note that there is currently an 8-10 year lag time between ratification and official publication in UST.

U.S. treaties first appear in slip form in Treaties and Other International Acts Series (TIAS) (Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of State, 1946-), a set of individually paginated pamphlets, consecutively numbered. This series has a lag time of 5-6 years. Before ratification, you can check on the status of a treaty in CCH Congressional Index (Chicago: Commerce Clearing House, 1938-).

After ratification, but still well before treaties appear in slip form, selected treaties (after they are cleared for publication by the Senate) are published in the Senate Treaty Document Series (Congressional Information Service) (formerly the Senate Executive Document Series).

C. Indexes and Finding Tools

These tools are useful for locating citations for bilateral and multilateral treaties and agreements.

  1. Treaties in Force (TIF) (Washington, DC: Office of the Legal Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State, 1950-). This annual publication lists and very briefly summarizes all U.S. treaties and agreements still in force, arranged by country and subject. Includes both bilateral and multilateral treaties and provides (when available) citations to U.S.T. and T.I.A.S. numbers. The primary use of TIF is verification of the existence of a treaty. TIF is also available on the Web, but the electronic version is usually no more current than the print. Since TIF is only published once a year, Treaty Actions were aimed at updating TIF. However, Treaty Actions are no longer issued monthly. TIF is also available on HeinOnline (subscription database), LexisNexis (“U.S. Treaties in Force” database), and Westlaw (“USTIF” file). Both HeinOnline and Westlaw have some archived volumes.

  2. A Guide to the United States Treaties in Force (I. Kavass and A. Sprudzs, eds., Buffalo, NY: W.S. Hein Co., 1982- ). This annual publication should be used in conjunction with TIF. Access is by a combined subject index for both bilateral and multilateral treaties, as well as by numerical and country index.  Supplemented by Guide to the United States Treaties in Force: Current Treaty Action Supplement. Available on HeinOnline (subscription database).

  3. United States Treaty Index (15 vols.) (I. Kavass, ed., Buffalo, NY: W.S. Hein Co., 1991-). This is one of the most comprehensive sources for U.S. treaty information. There are subject, chronological, and country indexes.  This set is supplemented by Current Treaty Index, see next. The treaties are available on microfiche in Hein's United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (see below). This set is available on CD-ROM, Hein's United States Treaty Index on CD-ROM (Buffalo, NY: W.S. Hein Co., 1991-).

  4. Current Treaty Index (I. Kavass and A. Sprudzs, eds., Buffalo, NY: W.S. Hein Co., 1982-). This looseleaf index lists current treaties and agreements published in slip form in TIAS as well as those treaties without TIAS numbers. It supplements the United States Treaty Index (see above). Available on HeinOnline (subscription database) with coverage back to 1982.

  5. Treaty Index Online. Available on the Web from Oceana Publications. Access to treaties and agreements from 1783 to present. Search using the title, subject, country, date or some other criteria. It looks as though the print index called Index to International Treaties and Agreements (E. C. Surrency, ed., Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1994-1998[?]) has ceased. There is also a Free Treaties Index which allows the user to search for free, but the text of the treaties is not available.

  6. CCH Congressional Index (Chicago, IL: Commerce Clearing House, Inc., 1937-). Two volume loose-leaf set issued for each Congressional session. The Senate volume of this set contains a section on treaties pending before the Senate. It provides information on the status of treaties.

  7. Congressional Record Index (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., 1873-). Provides a listing of treaty actions and discussion appearing in the Congressional Record under the heading "Treaties" and occasionally under the name of a particular treaty or its subject matter. May provide the text of a treaty or reservation to a treaty and it is often a good source for legislative history of a treaty. Available on the web through Lexis Nexis Congressional (subscription database), Thomas and GPO Access.

  8. Thomas: Treaties. This web site provides some information for locating treaty documents from 90th Congress to the present. Search by Congress, treaty document number, word/phrase, or by type of treaty. Some full-text treaties are available.

  9. Journal articles can be a very good source for citations to and information about treaties. Search the full-text files on either LEXIS or WESTLAW.

D. Full-text Sources

Historical Sources

  1. Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America  (cited as Miller) (H. Miller ed., Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O.,1931). Contains text of treaties from 1776-1863. Also available on HeinOnline (subscription database).

  2. Treaties, Conventions, International Acts, Protocols, and Agreements Between the U.S.A. and Other Powers (cited as Malloy) (Malloy ed., v.1-2; Redmond & Trenwith eds., v.3-4, Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., 1910 -). Contains text of treaties from 1776-1937; v.4 has cumulative index and chronological list of treaties. Also available on HeinOnline (subscription database).

  3. Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States, 1776- 1949 (cited as Bevans) (Bevans, ed., Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., 1968-1976). Supersedes Miller and Malloy; v.1-4 have the text of multilateral treaties and agreements in chronological order by date of signature; v.5-12 includes bilateral treaties and agreements in alphabetical order by country; v.13 has a cumulative country and subject index. Covers 1908-September 1929.  Also available on HeinOnline (subscription database).

  4. Treaty Series (cited as T.S.) (October 1929-1945) (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O, 1908-1946). Provides the text of treaties only. Merged with Executive Agreement Series to form Treaties and Other International Acts Series (T.I.A.S.).

  5. Executive Agreement Series (EAS) (cited as E.A.S.) (October 1929-1945) (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O, 1929-1946). Contains international executive agreements only. Merged with Treaty Series.

  6. Statutes at Large (Stat.) (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O, 1789-). From 1776-1950, treaties and international agreements were published in Statutes at Large.  Volume 8 contains all treaties between the U.S. and other countries from 1778-1845.  Volume 64, part 3 contains a cumulative list of all treaties and agreements included in volumes 1-64.  The first 17 volumes of Statutes at Large are available on the web on the Library of Congress, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation.

  7. Unperfected Treaties of the United States of America, 1776-1976 (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1976-1994).  Six volume set includes treaties and agreements concluded by the U.S. which, for whatever reason, never entered into force between 1776 and 1976.

Current Sources

  1. United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (cited as U.S.T.) (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O , 1950-).  This is the cumulative collection of T.I.A.S. (slip copies of treaties) and is the current official collection of U.S. treaties and agreements.  There is a considerable lag time with this publication, about 20 years.  Volumes 1-35 are also available on HeinOnline (subscription database).

  2. Treaties and Other International Acts Series (cited as T.I.A.S.) (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., 1946-).  This series is the first official publication of new treaties and agreements -- slip treaty -- and is later bound in U.S.T.  Combines and continues numbering of Treaty Series and Executive Agreement Series. There is a lag time of about 8-9 year lag time.  T.I.A.S. 11060 to T.I.A.S. 12734 are also available on HeinOnline (subscription database).

  3. Hein's United States Treaties and Other International Agreements Current Service [microfiche] (Buffalo, NY: W.S. Hein, 1990-). Use the United States Treaty Index and the Current Treaty Index to locate the correct microfiche. This set is a good source for recent treaties.  Part of this service is also available on HeinOnline (subscription database) see “KAV Agreements.”

  4. Consolidated Treaties and International Agreements (cited as CTIA) (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1990-). This set is a continuation of the 231 volume set Consolidated Treaty Series (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1969-1986) which covers 1648-1918. The continuation set covers from January 1990 to present (about a 6 month lag).  Available in electronic format as part of Treaties and International Agreements Online (see next).

  5. Treaties and International Agreements Online (Oceana Publications, [1999-]). Subscription database service from Oceana Publications. This database contains U.S. treaties and international agreements in force since 1783. It contains specific fielded data and the full-text of over 15,000 bi-lateral and multilateral treaties signed by the United States.  Click on the "document details" button for citation and ratification information. Click on the "source image" button for access to some PDF documents (Senate Treaty Documents, T.I.A.S., U.S.T, etc.).

  6. CIS Index to Publications of the United States Congress [and microfiche] (Bethesda, MD: Congressional Information Service, 1970-). Treaties appearing in the Senate Treaty Document Series are indexed by CIS. Access is through subject matter of the treaty, title of the treaty, as well as through the heading "Treaties and agreements," and the treaty document number (assigned by the Senate). The index provides a citation to the CIS microfiche set where the full text of the treaty is located.  See also CIS Senate Executive Documents and Reports [and microfiche] (Bethesda, MD: Congressional Information Service, 1987), a microfiche collection of treaty documents and reports from 1817-1969.  There is a two-volume index for accessing the relevant microfiche numbers. See also Lexis Nexis Congressional and Congressional Masterfile on CD-ROM (Congressional Information Service).

  7. Senate Treaty Documents (cited as S. Treaty Doc. No.) (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., 1981-). Senate, House & Treaty Documents are available on the Web from 104th Congress on. These documents include the text of treaties submitted by the executive branch to the Senate for its advice and consent, together with supporting documentation. Senate Treaty Documents are also available through the Serial Set, Lexis Nexis Congressional, CIS publications, LexisNexis (US Treaties), and Westlaw (USTREATIES). Prior to 1979, these documents were called Senate Executive Documents.

  8. Senate Executive Reports (cited as S. Exec. Rpt.) (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., n.d.). Senate Executive Reports are available on the Web from104th Congress on. These reports are issued by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and include the Committee’s analysis and recommendations concerning proposed treaties. They also include the text of proposed treaties, together with any conditions (i.e., amendments or reservations) recommended by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. These documents are also available in the Serial Set, CIS Senate to US Senate Documents and Reports and other CIS publications.

  9. Declassified State Department & Other Agency Documents, International Agreements, pursuant to Pub. L. 108-458, 11 Stat. 3638, 3807 (2004), the Secretary of State is required to publish on the State Department’s web site “each treaty or international agreements proposed to be published in the compilation ‘United States Treaties and Other International Agreements’ not later than 180 days after the date on which the treaty or agreement enters into force.’’  This collection begins with March 1998.

  10. Thomas: Treaties. Provides the text of treaties submitted to the Senate from the 104th Congress to present (same as those documents available from GPO Access noted in item 7 above). 

  11. Both LexisNexis and Westlaw contain U.S. treaties and agreements. Treaties can be located in the “USTREATIES” file on Westlaw and in “US Treaties” on LexisNexis. Both of these systems have many topical agreements and treaties: major trade agreements (GATT and NAFTA), International Economic Law Documents, International Environmental Law Documents, and tax treaties.

Some Other Sources

1.       United Nations Treaty Series (cited as U.N.T.S.) ((New York: United Nations) covers 1944-date.  Many of the treaties contained in this source are also available on the subscription database called United Nations Treaty Collection. There is a lag time of a couple of years.  The predecessor to the U.N.T.S. is the League of Nations Treaty Series (cited as L.N.T.S.) ([Geneva, etc.: League of Nations], 1920-1946) and covers 1920-1944.  It is also available on the subscription database. 

2.       International Legal Materials (cited as I.L.M.) Washington, DC: American Society of International Law, 1962-). Selected treaties appear in full-text, often the first and only place they are published until the treaties come out officially. ILM is also available on LexisNexis (INTLAW; ILM) from 1975 on, Westlaw (ILM) from 1980 to present, and on HeinOnline (subscription database).

3.       There are many topical collections of treaties and agreements, such as Tax Treaties (Chicago, Commerce Clearing House, 1965-) and Extradition Laws and Treaties, United States (Buffalo, N.Y.: W.S. Hein, 1980-). Some of these sets are regularly updated in loose-leaf format or available by subscription on the Web.

4.       While there is no one comprehensive collection of US treaties on the Web, some collections are freely available, see below.

E. Status, Updating and Ratification Information

Once a researcher has located the text of the agreement, the status of the document must be determined. This includes determining the parties of a multilateral agreement, entry into force date, and locating any amendments to the original agreement. Since status information is ever changing, locating current status of treaties and agreements has always been a challenging task for the researcher. Keep in mind that un-ratified treaties do not die at the end of the Congressional session, therefore, it is often important to determine where a treaty is in the ratification process.

  1. Treaties in Force (see above).

  2. A Guide to the United States Treaties in Force (see above).

  3. CCH Congressional Index (see above).

  4. Current Treaty Index (see above).

  5. U.S. Senate Web site, Legislative Activities: Treaties, provides the following information: a list of treaties received from the President, treaties on the Executive Calendar, treaties approved by the Senate, and listings of other recent treaty status actions, including treaties that were rejected by the Senate or withdrawn by the President, during the current Congress.

  6. Thomas: Treaties. This web site provides status and other information for treaty documents from 90th Congress to the present. Older treaties are included if they were pending in 1975 when the database was created.  Search by Congress, treaty document number, word/phrase, or by type of treaty.

  7. Shepard's United States Citations (Colorado Springs: Shepard's/McGraw Hill, 1996-). Pre-1950 treaties are listed by Statutes at Large number and after 1950 they are listed by UST or TIAS number. Provides to treaties that amend earlier treaties.

  8. The State Dept. used to issue a weekly newsletter called Dispatch. It contained a section called “Treaty Actions” which included current information on bilateral and multilateral treaties. This publication ceased in print in 1999 and the monthly Current Treaty Actions information is now available only on the Web. Older editions of the Dispatch are available on the State Dept.’s Web site or on LEXIS (INTLAW; DSTATE) and Westlaw (USDPTSTDIS), and available on HeinOnline (subscription database).

  9. Depending on the topic of the treaty or agreement, consult relevant loose-leafs, periodicals, or series on the topic. For example, the Tax Management International Journal contains a section called "Current Status of U.S. Tax Treaties and International Tax Agreements." Other topical journals may contain similar information.

  10. If looking for status and ratification information for multilateral treaties, many treaty secretariats and collections are available on the Web. See the chapter on multilateral treaties for more information.

  11. If all else fails, call the Department of State's Office of Treaty Affairs at (202) 647-1345 for up-to-date treaty information.

F. Background Information (Legislative Histories and Treaty Interpretation)

There are many U.S. government documents that are useful for doing background research. Most of the U.S. government documents mentioned below can be located with the same tools used for researching federal legislative histories, such as the CIS/Index to Publications and LexisNexis Congressional.  Otherwise, if it is a multilateral agreement done under the auspices of an international organization, consult the documentation of the organization, the conference materials or web site, or the treaty secretariat web site.  For example, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change web site provides background information and documents.

  1. Senate Treaty Documents (see above).

  2. Senate Executive Reports (see above).

  3. Congressional Committee hearings, especially the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. See the U.S. Senate Web site Treaties for current information about treaties received from the President, treaties on the calendar, approved treaties, and other recent treaty status actions. See also CIS/Index to Publications and LexisNexis Congressional.

  4. State Department documents, including Dispatch (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., 1990-1999), international law digests, Foreign Relations of the United States (Washington DC: U.S.G.P.O., 1861-).

  5. Presidential documents, including Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States.

  6. Some legislative history research can be done on LexisNexis and Westlaw.  See LexisNexis (LEGIS library, CISLH file) and Westlaw (LH database).

  7. Look for "travaux preparatoires" or other commentaries in library catalogs or through periodical indexes.  For example, Vern Krishna, The Canada-U.S. Tax Treaty: Text and Commentary (Markham, Ont.; Dayton, Ohio : LexisNexis Butterworths, 2004).

  8. Shepard's United States Citations (Colorado Springs: Shepard's/McGraw Hill, 1996-). Pre-1950 treaties are listed by Statutes at Large number and after 1950 they are listed by UST or TIAS number. Provides citations to cases and statutes that cite or affect treaties.

  9. United States Code Service (Rochester, NY: Lawyers Co-operative Pub. Co., 1972-). See unnumbered volume "Notes to Uncodified Laws and Treaties." This volume contains interpretive notes and decisions involving multilateral and bilateral treaties.

  10. Treaties and Other International Agreements Online (Oceana) does provide access to some Senate Treaty Document (select the “source image” button).

G. Treaties By Popular Names

Often treaties and agreements are referred to by popular names which can cause some frustration for the researcher trying to locate them in indexes and finding tools. Some of these sources may be helpful in deciphering the official name of the document.

  1. Shepard's Acts and Cases by Popular Name (Colorado Springs: Shepard's/McGraw Hill, 1968-).

  2. Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949 (Bevans, ed., Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., 1968-1976).  Also available on HeinOnline (subscription database).

  3. Periodicals (full-text and indexes), such as International Legal Materials (Washington, DC: American Society of International Law, 1962-).

  4. Avalon Project: Alphabetical Title List.

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III. U.S. Treaties and Agreements on the Internet

Listed below are selected treaty collections available on the Internet. These sites focus on U.S. treaties and agreements only.  For sites devoted to multilateral sources, see the research guides mentioned above.

 

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Footnotes

1 Treaties and Other International Agreements: The Role of the United States Senate: A Study, prepared for the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, S. Print 103-53, (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1993) p. xiii.   This document is also available on HeinOnline, a subscription database. <back to text>
2 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1155 UNTS 311 (May 23, 1969), art. 2, s 1(a). <back to text>
3 Treaties and Other International Agreements: the Role of the United States Senate: a Study, supra note 1, p. xiii. <back to text>
4 Treaties and Other International Agreements, Chapter 700, Foreign Affairs Manual, Volume 11, (Washington, DC: US Department of State, revised February 25, 1985). <back to text>
5 Agreements based on the President’s Constitutional authority (executive agreements), agreements pursuant to legislation or Congressional-Executive agreement, and agreements pursuant to treaty (authorization is based on a treaty previously ratified by U.S.). <back to text>
6 1 U.S.C. §112b <back to text>