Stefanie Weigmann is a reference librarian at the International Legal Studies Library at Harvard Law School.
[Editor's Note: Please also see Marci Hoffman's guide to Researching U.S. Treaties, published May 15, 2001.]
This guide is about researching multilateral and bilateral treaties to which the United States (U.S.) is not a signatory. For treaties where the U.S. is a signatory, see Researching U.S. Treaties and Agreements. This guide will cover the following topics:
- Locating and Updating Multilateral Treaties
- Indexes to Multilateral Treaties and Treaty Collections
- Treaty Research Online
- Status Information
- Reservations and Declarations
- Implementation and Interpretation
- Drafting of Multilateral Treaties Conferences and Travaux Preparatoire
- Bilateral Treaties outside of the U.S.
First, a brief overview of the life cycle of a multilateral treaty. Article 2 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties defines 'treaty' as "an international agreement concluded between States in written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments and whatever its particular designation." Whether a treaty is called a convention, a protocol, a charter or any other term, as long as it fulfills the definition in Article 2 it is a treaty. There is a useful treaty glossary at the United Nations Treaty Series website. Multilateral treaties, or treaties with two or more parties, are often signed at a conference or gathering of nations negotiating a treaty. After a country has signed it must ratify the treaty, since in most jurisdictions signature does not equal ratification. Once a country has ratified the treaty it is considered a party to the treaty and legally bound by the terms of the treaty. Because a country may not want to be bound by every provision of a treaty, the option exists to make a reservation to the treaty stating the limitations of the treaty's application to a particular country. Some sponsoring intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), like the International Labour Organization (ILO), do not allow reservations. Upon ratification the treaty is now binding upon the country, but may require implementing legislation in order to become domestically effective.
So what does all this mean for the researcher? It means there are several types of information you are looking for: (1) the text of the treaty, (2) the status of individual countries, e.g., are they signatories or parties, (3) reservations or declarations made by individual countries, and (4) any implementing domestic legislation. You may also be interested in (5) any domestic or international interpretation of the treaty and (6) any documents produced in the course of administering the treaty.
The first in treaty research is locating the text of the treaty. This is probably still best accomplished using a paper index. Two excellent paper indexes are: Multilateral Treaties: Index and Current Status by Bowman & Harris (London: Butterworths, 1984) which is current through 1984; and the Multilateral Treaty Calendar by Christian Wiktor (The Hague; Boston: M. Nijhoff Publishers; Cambridge, MA: Kluwer Law International, 1998) which is current through 1985. The Bowman & Harris index provides multiple sources of the text and the parties to the treaty, and the Wiktor index includes a larger number of treaties. Both of these indexes are arranged chronologically, so they are particularly useful if you only know the date of the treaty.
Another important index is the United Nations (UN) Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary General (New York: United Nations, 1982) which is available in paper and electronically by subscription. This index is important because it includes status information and the reservations/declarations of the parties. It is, however, limited to treaties deposited with the Secretary-General, as the title implies.
There are also indexes associated with a particular treaty series. There is an index called the Index-guide to Treaties (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1979) which is a guide to the Consolidated Treaty Series (CTS) (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1969) which includes treaties from 1648 to 1918. There is also Nouveau Recueil de Traités d’Alliance, de Paix, de Trève (Gottingue: Dieterich, 1817-41) which indexes treaties from 1808 to 1900 with a supplement going back to 1746. Yale University has been posting some historical treaties on their Avalon Project website.
The most important treaty series is the United Nations Treaty Series (UNTS) (New York: United Nations, 1947-). Under the UN Charter all member nations are required to register their treaties, both bilateral and multilateral, with the United Nations. In practice many nations do not submit their treaties, however, this is still the most complete source of treaties available. It is currently available online with a subscription or in paper. The UNTS has a Cumulative Index (New York: United Nations, 1956-) which began with the first hundred volumes and is now issued every fifty volumes. Hein has published the United Nations Master Treaty Index (Buffalo, N.Y.: William S. Hein & Co., Inc., 1995-) which is available in paper and on CD-ROM.
Other treaty series include:
- the League of Nations Treaty Series (LNTS) (London: Harrison & Sons, 1920-1946);
- the Organization of American States (OAS) Treaty Series (Washington, D.C.: General Secretariat, Organization of American States) to document number of which in the official documents of the OAS is OEA/Ser.A;
- the Pan American Union Treaty Series (Washington, D.C.: Pan American Union, 1956-), the precursor of the OAS Treaty Series;
- European Conventions and Agreements (Strasbourg: The Council, 1971-), also know as the European Treaty Series from the Council of Europe.
All of these are indexed in the two multilateral treaty indexes mentioned first above, Bowman & Harris and Wiktor.
The European Union should be mentioned here. The treaties that constitute the European Union are available at the EU website, however, most of the treaties that the EU enters into as a treaty partner are published in the Official Journal of the European Communities. Legislation (Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities) or the L series. Only the last three months of the Official Journal (OJ) are available at the official website, however, on Westlaw (EU-LEG) the OJ is available back to 1952.
Finally, a source for draft treaties, recently adopted treaties or unusual treaties is International Legal Materials (ILM) (Washington, D.C.: American Society of International Law, 1962-). This publication often publishes important international documents before they are generally available. Searchable versions of ILM are available on Lexis (INTLAW;ILM) and Westlaw (ILM).
If you want to use the web for your research then you should focus on the IGO which sponsored the treaty or try a subject-oriented website. Many organs of the United Nations publish the treaties they are responsible for drafting and sponsoring. These include:
- International Law Commission (ILC): Conventions
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): Environmental Legal Instruments and ECOLEX
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): Treaties Deposited with the FAO
- United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights (UNHCHR): International Human Rights Instruments
- United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees (UNHCR): International Instruments from Refworld
- United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea: Oceans and the Law of the Sea Conventions
This names just a few of the more significant repositories of treaties within the United Nations structure. It is always worth checking if the entity responsible for the treaty you are researching has posted that treaty on a website.
Other IGOs also have significant collections of treaties. These include:
- Hague Conference on Private International Law: Hague Conventions
- International Institute for the Unification of Private Law: UNIDROIT Conventions
- International Labour Organisation: ILOLEX
- World Intellectual Property Organization: Treaties Administered by WIPO
Many multilateral treaties establish secretariats which are responsible for tracking signature/ratification, party compliance and other documents produced under the treaty. These secretariats post their own basic documents. The World Trade Organization and NAFTA are are two good examples. There are many other treaty secretariats. Finding the secretariat for a particular treaty ensures access not only to the treaty text and to status information, but also to documents produced under the auspices of the treaty.
Finally, there are non-governmental organizations (NGOs), institutions and individuals that are posting treaty texts on the web. These collections tend to have a subject focus. Care should be taken with regard to the source of these documents. It is far better to use an official text where one is available. One of the best collections of multilateral treaties is the Fletcher School Multilaterals Project. For a list of collections of treaties select the link.
Determining whether a country has signed and then ratified a treaty is sometimes a daunting task. The UN publication Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary General does an excellent job of updating the status of signatories with regard to most of the important UN treaties. The same information can be obtained by calling or faxing the Office of Legal Affairs Treaty Section (212) 963-2523 (phone) or (212) 963-3693 (fax) or e-mailing them at email@example.com. Many of the internet collections of treaties and secretariats noted above include status information. For human rights treaties the first issue of the Human Rights Law Journal (Kehl am Rhein, Germany; Arlington Va.: N.P. Engel, 1980-) has an excellent overview of what countries have signed and ratified the various human rights treaties.
Even more difficult than finding status information is finding reservations or declarations. One of the most useful features of the UN publication Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary General is that it includes reservations and declarations. Most of the collections of treaties mentioned above do not include reservations and declarations with the exception of the European Treaty Series. Reservations and declarations regarding some of the Hague Conventions can be found in the Martindale Hubbell volume International Law Digest (Summit, N.J.: Martindale-Hubbell, c1990-). Reservations and declarations often come into being during the ratification process and would be available as part of the legislative history of that process. In the United States, for example, reservations and declarations can be found in the Congressional Record (Washington: Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., distributor). But for many countries there is no good source of legislative history, so locating any reservations and declarations might involve calling government offices of the country.
A country may sign a treaty and never ratify it. There is ample evidence of this in the United States where the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations still has many treaties pending in committee including a treaty signed in 1946. It is sometimes a challenge to figure out the domestic treaty-making practice. The American Society for International Law has been publishing a series called National Treaty Law and Practice (Washington, D.C. : American Society of International Law, c1995-) the two volumes of which have so far covered treaty law and practice in Austria, Chile, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Japan, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom and the United States. Another comparative book is Parliamentary Participation in the Making and Operation of Treaties: A Comparative Study (Dordrecht ; Boston: M. Nijhoff Publishers; Norwell, MA, U.S.A.: Sold and distributed in the U.S.A. and Canada by Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994). There are books and web-based descriptions of the domestic treaty-making process which are listed here.
Many domestic legal systems require that a treaty be integrated into domestic law by means of implementing legislation. In the United States self-executing treaties have direct legal effect and non-self-executing treaties require implementing legislation to have legal effect. This requires that you do some domestic legal research if you are interested in how individual countries have implemented a particular treaty. The scope of this guide does not include the legislative sources of foreign jurisdictions.
The next question when looking at domestic legal effect is that of how domestic courts interpret a particular treaties. The most useful tool is International Law Reports (London: Butterworth & Co., 1956-) which includes an index at the front of every volume (and in the cumulative index volumes) that points to the particular mention of a treaty in the cases reported. The set includes the decisions of the domestic courts as well as international courts. ILR has a precursor the Annual Digest and Reports of Public International Law Cases (London: Butterworth & Co., 1940-1955). A recent book International Law Decisions in National Courts (Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Transnational Publishers, 1996) may also provide some guidance. In some jurisdictions treaties are only interpreted by the constitutional courts, and some of these also have websites. But in most jurisdictions, like the United States, you would need to research all the caselaw of the jurisdiction. That discussion is also outside of the scope of this guide.
A few treaties have generated enough caselaw that there have been translations and compilations of that caselaw. The Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods is one of these. UNCTAD has a database of caselaw CLOUT, there is a useful website at Pace Law School, and another website at the University of Freiburg. The University of Michigan has put together a Refugee Caselaw Site which may include mention of international treaties. There can also be paper compilations like ICSID Reports: Reports of Cases decided under the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (Cambridge: Grotius Publications, 1993-). It might be worth hunting to one of these if the convention is well known.
We are also interested in how international courts have interpreted a treaty provision. As mentioned above International Law Reports may help. There are also indexes to the decisions of international courts. The decisions of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) are indexed in World Court Digest (Rainer Hofmann, ed. New York: Springer,1993) and Fontes Juris Gentium (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1931-) as well as a number of other sources. The decision of the ICJ are available in paper, can be searched on Westlaw (INT-ICJ), and are posted on the court's website. Many of the other international courts and tribunals have websites which post their decisions and provide search capabilities. One of the better access points is the Project on International Courts and Tribunals.
Most treaties create an administrative entity often called a secretariat. The UN Charter, for example, created the UN Secretariat. This body is responsible for holding the text of the treaty, tracking signature, accession and ratification and monitoring compliance. We have already discussed the first few topics, but we have not discussed monitoring or "enforcing" the treaty. Some multilateral treaties, especially older treaties, have no provisions for monitoring the compliance of state parties; however, the more recent trend has been to include monitoring functions. These documents, which usually include reporting by state parties and observers from the secretariat, are either available at the website of the secretariat or can be obtained from the secretariat. A recent book has a good overview of these mechanisms: Administrative and Expert Monitoring of International Treaties (Ardsley, N.Y.: Transnational Publishers, 1999). All of this to say, find the treaty secretariat for documentation of treaty administration.
All treaties have a history, and this history can be important in the subsequent interpretation of the treaty. Article 32 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties states that the interpretation of a treaty will take into account the "preparatory work of the treaty and the circumstances of its conclusion." So finding the preparatory documents, or "travaux preparatoire" can be an important part of your research.
But not every history is public - some treaty negotiations remain permanently confidential. In this case we are talking only about multilateral treaties, because the negotiations of bilateral treaties are almost always completely confidential. The semi-public nature of multilateral treaty negotiation documents makes the search for the preparatory documents, like previous drafts of a particular article or committee reports, one of the most difficult parts of treaty research. But there are an increasing number of tools that can help in this research.
The first step is to identify the organization sponsoring the treaty negotiation. The drafting and negotiation of multilateral treaties has traditionally taken place within the context of a sponsoring intergovernmental organization - most often the UN. The ILC, for example, has taken upon itself the task of codifying international law in the form of multilateral treaties that express existing principles of law on the international law. Many of the important law-making treaties have come from the ILC, and tracing the drafting history of the treaty is made easier by the "Analytical Guide to the Work of the International Law Commission" now available at the ILC's website. Within the sponsoring organization there is usually a working group or a sub-committee or even a committee responsible for drafting and reporting on drafts of a proposed treaty. Once you have managed to identify that group you are much more likely to find relevant documents.
The next step is to use the tools the sponsoring organization provides for identifying its documents to search for preparatory documents. In the case of the UN, the Dag Hammerskjold Library has provided a useful tool called UN Info Quest (UNIQUE) which identifies key documents from important UN groups. For example, a search on "Draft Convention Child" brings up documents from the Working Group on the Draft Convention on the Rights of the Child. But this is far from a complete tool, since the library has only included frequently requested documents. A more complete source is UNBISNet which is a catalogue of documents indexed by the library. Here a search of "Author Keyword=rights of the child" and "Title Keyword=convention" produced 339 relevant documents. There are also other tools for researching UN documents, but the more useful of these are subscription databases like Access UN from Readex and the Optical Disk System from the UN. Access UN indexes all the documents Readex has put on microfiche back to 1952, and the UN ODS is a full-text source of all documents produced in New York and Geneva since 1991. Other organizations have other systems for organizing their documents.
Most of the treaties drafted within an intergovernmental organization are negotiated in the context of that organization. In the context of the UN, for example, the Convention of the Rights of the Child was adopted in a resolution of the General Assembly, A/RES/44/25. Where there are many issues to be debated the treaty is sometimes negotiated in the context of a conference. A recent example is the conference at which the Statute of the International Criminal Court was recently negotiated and adopted. The documents produced by this conference all had a unique document number A/Conf.183/.... So in researching the preparatory work for this treaty you would need to look at the committees or working groups responsible for drafting the treaty and the conference documents that led up to the adoption of a final text. With the advent of the internet many of these conference documents became available via the website of the conference. Bear in mind, however, that the conference documents are not the only documents - many treaties have a lengthy history of drafting.
You can do the work described above, of tracking down the individual documents produced by drafting entities, but first you should check on a library catalogue if someone has produced a compilation of travaux preparatoire. For example, Sharon Detrick has compiled The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: A Guide to the "Travaux Preparatoires" (Dordrecht; Boston: M. Nijhoff Publishers; Norwell, MA, U.S.A: Sold and distributed in the U.S.A. and Canada by Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992). For some of the more significant treaties there may be a compilation of documents or at least a listing of relevant preparatory texts.
Some intergovernmental organizations that sponsor treaties publish their own compilations of preparatory texts, some of which are now available via the Internet. The Hague Conference publishes its "Proceedings" in paper following every diplomatic session which include all the relevant documents. But now many of the documents that would be included in the "Proceedings" are available as "Work in Progress" before the end of the session. This is true of many intergovernmental organizations which are electronically publishing the documents produced by working groups. For these purposes, it is important to know the length of the drafting history of the treaty. The Statute of the International Criminal Court, for example, was over 40 years in the making.
Other intergovernmental organizations that frequently sponsor treaties are the International Labour Organization (ILO) which is also posting conference documents. The OAS also sponsors agreements, however, since its web publication is very decentralized documents may or may not be available at the websites for the various issue-related division of the OAS. WIPO provides a link to diplomatic conferences held under its auspices which include documents from those conferences. UNEP provides a link to the various convention secretariats of the treaties it administers some of which include preparatory documents. Pace Law School has posted preparatory documents for the Convention of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. It is not possible to list all the possible sources of documents here, however, these examples illustrate the strategy. Look for IGO documents, IGO committee documents, conference documents and the postings of secretariats. All of these documents may be available on the web (if the treaty is resent or still in draft form) and these is often a paper source (although not always.)
All countries deal with the publication of the agreements they enter into with other countries in a slightly different way. Some countries have some sort of treaty series, like the United States series United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (Washington, D.C.: Dept. of State: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1952). England, for example, has a Treaty Series (London: H.M.S.O., 1892) and also used to publish treaties in a series called British and Foreign State Papers (London: H.M.S.O., 1812) which is a good source for historical treaties . Other countries that have treaty series include Australia (which is the only national treaty series completely online), Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands (select Tractatenblad), New Zealand and South Africa. Some official gazettes of individual countries publish international agreement. For a list of those countries please follow this link.
The easiest way to find a bilateral treaty is in a commercial compilation of bilateral treaties by subject. There are only a few of these: Investment Promotion and Protection Treaties (compiled by International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes. London; New York: Oceana Publications, c1983-); International Tax Treaties of All Nations (Walter H. Diamond and Dorothy B. Diamond eds.Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1978-).
There is an index for bilateral treaties that ceased in 1980, the World Treaty Index ( Buffalo, N.Y.: W.S. Hein, 1997) which has recently been reprinted by Hein. Since this index ends in 1980 it does not reflect the current status of bilateral treaties between governments. There are also government websites that publish either indexes to treaties or the full-text of treaties. Only the treaty series from Australia and the Netherlands are complete:
- Australian Treaty Series (full-text and complete)
- Argentina (index)
- Bolivia (index)
- Canado-American Treaties (full-text)
- Canada: Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreements (full-text)
- China (selected)
- Croatia (index)
- Columbia (full-text in Juriscol by "titulo uniforme" as "Acuerdo")
- Costa Rica (index and slow)
- Costa Rica: Investment and Trade (full-text)
- Costa Rica: Recent Actions on Treaties (full-text)
- Ecuador (index)
- Egypt (selected full-text)
- Finland (full-text)
- France (full-text)
- France (legislative activity on recent treaties)
- Germany (selected full-text)
- Honduras (full-text)
- Hong Kong Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements (selected full-text)
- Hong Kong Treaty Project (index)
- Hungary (index)
- Iceland: Free-Trade Agreements (selected full-text)
- India: Bilateral (full-text from 1947-1975)
- Italy (selected full-text)
- Malaysia (index under "Treaties and Agreements)
- Mexico (index)
- Netherlands (full-text select "Tractatenblad")
- Norway: Environmental Agreements (full-text)
- Panama (index)
- Paraguay (index)
- Switzerland (full-text)
- Turkey (very selected full-text)
- United Kingdom (explanatory memoranda)
- Uruguay (index)
However, to be certain which treaties a certain country has entered into you might have to contact government offices either of that country or the United States. You could e-mail the foreign ministry of a particular country, many of which have websites. The embassies of a particular country may also be a useful resource and can also be e-mailed using their websites. You can also find phone and fax numbers for ministries and embassies using the Europa World Yearbook (London, England: Europa Publications Limited, c1989-). You could also contact the country desks at either the Department of Commerce (202) 482-2000 or at the Department of State (202) 647-4000. The Department of Commerce also publishes Country Commercial Guides which always have an appendix with contact information for government offices.
A final note: finding bilateral treaties where the U.S. is not a signatory is a difficult task and could take a fair amount of time. Good luck.
- Treaties and Convention (from InternationalADR)
- Multilateral Arbitration Conventions (from the T.M.C. Asser Instituut)
- Money Laundering (International Money Laundering Information Network)
- Narcotic Drugs (International Narcotics Control Board)
- Extradition and Legal Assistance (United Nations Crime and Justice Information Network)
Economic (see also Trade)
- Basic Documents of International Economic Law (INTLAW:BDIEL) [Lexis: password required]
- Investment Agreements in the Western Hemisphere (from the OAS)
- Bilateral Investment Treaties (from the ICSID)
- Inventory of the Competition Policy Agreements, Treaties and Other Arrangements Existing in the Western Hemisphere (from the OAS)
- Environmental Treaties and Resource Indicators Project (from the Center for International Earth Science Network and others)
- Harvard International Environmental Policy Reference Guide (from Harvard University Committee on Environment and others)
- Pace Virtual Environmental Law Library (from Pace University School of Law)
- International Environmental Agreements and Conventions (from the World Resources Institute)
- Environmental Legal Instruments (from UNEP)
- International Environmental Law Documents (INTLENVL) [Westlaw: password required]
- Environmental Law Reporter - Statutes and International Agreements (ELR-STIA) [Westlaw password required]
- Treaties Deposited with the FAO (from the Food and Agriculture Organization)
- ECOLEX (from the World Conservation Union and UNEP)
- International Human Rights Instruments (from the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights)
- Basic Documents Pertaining to Human Rights in the Inter-American System (from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights)
- International Instruments from Refworld (from the United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees)
- Human Rights Treaties and Other Instruments (from the University of Minnesota Human Rights Library)
- Treaties Administered by WIPO (from the WIPO Secretariat)
- Text of ILO Conventions (from the International Labour Organization)
- ILOLEX (from the International Labour Organization): Includes conventions and related status information and other documents.
Law of the Sea
- Oceans and the Law of the Sea Conventions (from the United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea)
- Income Tax Treaties (from the Internal Revenue Service)
- Tax Treaty Database (from Danziger Foreign Direct Investment)
- International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation (INTLAW;IBFD) [Lexis: password required]
- Tax Notes International (FEDTAX;TNI) [Lexis: password required]
- Federal Taxation - U.S. Treaties and Conventions (FTX-TREATIES) [Westlaw: password required]
- BNA's Daily Tax Report (BNA-DTA) [Westlaw: password required] or (FEDTAX;BNADTR) [Lexis: password required]
- Uruguay Round Final Acts (from the WTO Secretariat)
- Uruguay Round General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) [Westlaw: password required] and (INTLAW;GATT) [Lexis: password required]
- North American Free Trade Agreement (from the NAFTA Secretariat)
- North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) [Westlaw: password required] and (INTLAW:NAFTA) [Lexis: password required]
- Lexmercantoria: Treaties Related to Free Trade or Economic Union (from the University of Oslo)
- Trade Agreements in the Western Hemisphere (from the OAS Trade Unit)
- International Legal Instruments (from Juris International)
War & Peace
- Laws of War (from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School)
- CBW Treaties (from the Harvard Sussex Program on CBW Armament and Arms Limitation)
- International Humanitarian Law: Texts and Treaties (from the International Red Cross)
- NATO Basic Documents (from NATO Secretariat)
- Major International Instruments on Disarmament and Related Issues (from the United Nations Office at Geneva)
- Control previo de los tratados internacionales / Antonio Castagno. Buenos Aires: Abeledo-Perrot, 
- Los tratados internacionales y la constitución nacional / Carlos E. Colautti.Buenos Aires: La Ley, 1999.
- Los tratados internacionales y la constitución nacional / Ernesto J. Rey Caro, Graciela Rosa Salas y Zlata Drnas de Clement. Córdoba, Argentina: Marcos Lerner Editora Córdoba, 
- Essai sur la définition des traités entre Etats: la pratique de la Belgique aux confins du droit des traités / par Philippe Gautier; préface de Joe Verhoeven. Bruxelles: Bruylant, 1993.
- O poder de celebrar tratados : competência dos poderes constituídos para a celebração de tratados, à luz do direito internacional, do direito comparado e do direito constitucional brasileiro / Antônio Paulo Cachapuz de Medeiros. Porto Alegre: Sergio Antonio Fabris, 1995.
- Control de constitucionalidad de los tratados internacionales en Colombia / Hernán Alejandro Olano García. Santafé de Bogotá, D.C.: Ediciones Universidad de la Sabana: Ediciones-Librería la Constitución, 1995.
- La répartition des compétences en matière de conclusion des
accords internationaux sous la Ve République / Valérie
Goesel-Le Bihan; préface de Denys Simon. Paris: A. Pedone, 1995.
- Il Parlamento italiano e i trattati internazionali: Statuto albertino e Costituzione repubblicana / Fernanda Bruno. Milano: Giuffrè, 1997.
- Tratados--legislación y práctica en México / Jorge Palacios Treviño. [Mexico City, Mexico] : Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores, 1986.
- Het Nederlandse verdragenrecht / E.W. Vierdag. Zwolle: W.E.J. Tjeenk Willink, 1995.
- El control parlamentario de las atribuciones del presidente en la celebración de los convenios ejecutivos internacionales / Elvira Méndez Chang. Lima: Pontifícia Universidad Católica del Perú, 1999.
- Russian Federation
- The Russian law of treaties / W.E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1997.
- South Africa
- South Africa's treaties in theory and practice, 1806-1998 / Jacqueline A. Kalley. Lanham, MD.: Scarecrow Press, 2000.
- The treaty making power in Spain, 1967-1984: theory and practice: a development through transition / Jan Willem Bitter. Florence, Italy: European University Institute, 1992.
- United Kingdom
- United States
- La conclusión de los tratados internacionales conforme al derecho constitucional venezolano / Hans-Joachim Leu. Caracas: Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas, Universidad Central de Venezuela, 1987.
- Pháp lenh ve ký ket và th c hien ieu c quoc te cua Cong hòa xã hoi chu nghia Viet Nam. Hà Noi : Pháp lý, 1990.
- La conclusion des traités en droit constitutionnel zaïrois: étude de droit international et de droit interne / Lunda -Bululu; préface de Jean J.A. Salmon. [Bruxelles]: Editions Bruylant: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 1984.
Official gazettes that include international agreements are listed below. For those that are linked to web versions of the official gazettes, most of the online gazettes only include the last few years and some do not include all the parts. This guide is only linked to those gazettes that publish the part including international agreements.
- Afghanistan: Rasmi Jaridah,
- Algeria: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah or Journal Oficiel de la Republique Algerienne Democratic et Populaire,
- Angola: Diario da Republica (section 1),
- Argentina: Boletin Oficial de la Republica Argentina (section I),
- Austria: Bundesgesetzblatt,
- Bahrain: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah,
- Belgium: Moniteur Belge or Belgisch Staatsblad,
- Benin:Journal Officiel de la Republique Populaire du Benin,
- Brunei: Warta Kerajaan,
- Bulgaria: Durzhaven Vestnik,
- Burundi: Bulletin Officiel du Burundi or Ikinyamakuru C'Ibitegekwa mu Burundi,
- Cameroon: Journal Officiel de la Republique Unie du Cameroun or Official Gazette of the United Republic of Cameroon
- Cape Verde: Boletim Oficial,
- Chad: Journal Official de la Republique du Tchad,
- Chile: Diario Oficial de la Repbulica de Chile,
- Columbia: Diario Oficial,
- Comoros: Journal Officiel,
- Congo: Journal Officiel de la Republique Populaire du Congo,
- Costa Rica: La Gaceta or Diario Oficial,
- Cuba: Gaceta Oficial,
- Cyprus: Episemos Ephemeris tes Kypriakis Demokratias (section 1),
- Czechoslovakia: Sbirka Zakonu or Zbierka Zakonov,
- Denmark: Lovtidende for Kongeriget Danmark (Part C),
- Djibouti: Journal Officiel de la Republique du Djibouti,
- Dominican Republic: Gaceta Oficial,
- Ecuador: Registro Oficial,
- Egypt: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah,
- Equatorial Guinea: Boletin Oficial del Estado,
- France: Journal Officiel de la Republique Francaise,
- Gabon: Journal Officiel de la Republique Gabonaise,
- Germany: Bundesgesetzblatt (Part II),
- Greece: Ephemeris tes Kyverneseos (Section 1),
- Guatemala: Diario de Centro America,
- Guinea: Journal Officiel de la Republique Populaire Revolutionaire de Guinee,
- Guinea-Bissau: Boletim Oficial,
- Haiti: Le Moniteur,
- Honduras: La Gaceta,
- Hungary: Magyar Kozlony
- Iceland: Stjornatidindi
- Indonesia: Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia
- Iran: Ruznamah-'i Rasmi'i Jumhuri-i Islami-i Iran
- Iraq: Al-Waqa'i al-'Iraqiyah
- Israel: Reshumot
- Italy: Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana (Part One)
- Ivory Coast: Journal Officiel de la Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
- Japan: Kampo
- Jordan: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah lil-Mamlakah al-Urduniyah al-Hashimiyah
- Korea, Republic of: Kwanbo
- Kuwait: Kuwayt al-Yawm
- Libya: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah
- Liechtenstein: Liechtensteinisches Landesgesetzblatt
- Luxemburg: Le Memorial (Series A)
- Malagasy Republic: Journal Officiel de la Republique Democratique de Madagascar or Gazetim Panjakan Ny Repoblika Demokratika Malagasy
- Mali: Journal Officiel de la Republique du Mali
- Mauritania: Journal Officiel de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie
- Mexico: Diario Oficial
- Morocco: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah or Bulletin Officiel
- Mozambique: Boletim da Republica
- Nicaragua: La Gaceta
- Niger: Journal Officiel de la Repubique du Niger
- Oman: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah
- Panama: Gaceta Oficial
- Paraguay: Gaceta Oficial
- Peru: El Peruano, Diario Oficial
- Poland: Dziennik Ustaw Polskiej Rzeczypospolitej Ludowej (now Dziennik Ustaw)
- Portugal: Diario da Republica (Series I)
- Qatar: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah
- Romania: Buletinul Oficial al Republicii Socialiste Romania (Part I) (now Monitorul oficial)
- Rwanda: Journal Officiel de la Republique Rwandaise or Gazeti ya Leta ya Republika y'u Rwanda
- El Salvador: Diario Oficial
- San Marino: Bollettino Ufficiale della Repubblica di San Marino
- Sao Tome e Principe: Diario da Republica
- Saudi Arabia: Umm al-Qura or Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah lil-Mamlakah al-'Arabiyah al-Sa'udiyah
- Senegal: Journal Officel de la Republique du Senegal
- Singapore: Government Gazette (Treaties Supplement)
- South Africa: Republic of South Africa Government Gazette
- Spain: Boletin Oficial del Estado
- Sudan: Democratic Republic of Sudan Gazette or Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah lil-Jumhuriyah al-Sudan al-Dimuqratiyah (Legislative Supplement)
- Suriname: Staatsblad van de Republiek Suriname
- Switzerland: Bundesblatt der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft or Feuille Federale de la Confederation Suisse
- Syria: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah
- Thailand: Ratkitchanubeksa
- Togo: Journal Officiel de la Republique Togolaise
- Tunisia: Al-Ra'id al-Rasmi lil-Jumhuriyah al-Tunisiyah or Journal Officiel de la Republique Tunisienne
- Turkey: T.C. Tesmi Gazete
- Russia: Vedomosti S”ezda narodnykh deputatov Rossiiskoi Federatsii i Verkhovnogo Soveta Rossiiskoi Federatsii.
- United Arab Emirates: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah
- Upper Volta: Journal Officiel de la Republique de Haute-Volta
- Uruguay: Diario Oficial de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay
- Venezuela: Gacetal Oficial de la Republica de Venezuela
- Yemen: Al-Jaridah al-Rasmiyah
- Zaire: Journal Officiel de la Republique du Zaire (Part One)
This information is from A Guide to Official Gazettes and their Contents (ed. John E. Roberts, Library of Congress, 1985).