Attorney and author Kathy Biehl practiced law privately in Houston, Texas for 18½ years before relocating to New York City in 1998. She has taught legal research and writing at the University of Houston Law Center and business law at Rice University. A member of the State Bar of Texas, she earned a B.A. with highest honors from Southern Methodist University and a J.D. with honors from the University of Texas School of Law, where she was a member of Texas Law Review and Order of the Coif. She is co-author of The Lawyer’s Guide to Internet Research (Scarecrow Press, Nov. 2000), with Tara Calishain.
Each edition of Research Roundup will pull together related, practical online services that take outstanding advantage of the convenience and efficiency of the Internet.
RoundUp#1: Searchable IP Databases
RoundUp#2 : Slip Opinions Listservers
RoundUp#3 : Bill Tracking Resources
RoundUp#4 : Business Filings Databases
RoundUp#5 : Federal/State/Territory Sites with Election Resources
RoundUp#6 : Searchable IP Databases – Updated
RoundUp#7 : Slip Opinions Listservers – Updated
RoundUp#8 : Bill Tracking Resources – Updated
RoundUp#9 : Business Filings Databases – Updated
This edition of Research RoundUp catalogues federal, state, and U.S. territory sites with election resources. All include some level of basic information about the upcoming ballots, as well as voter registration and filing for office. Many also provide databases of lobbyists, political action committees, and campaign finance disclosure reports. Some even offer online access to vote tallies as they come in on election nights. In each description, I have mentioned if resources were available in the fall of 2000 but are not currently on the site, to give an indication of what may be available as elections approach again.
One linguistic note at the outset: For consistency’s sake I will use the Anglicized plural of referendum, referendums, because it is the form of choice among the state sites.
The Federal Election Commission offers many routes of access to campaign finance filings by house, senate, and presidential campaigns, political parties, and political action committees, since 1993.
It’s possible to view paper or electronically filed reports or search the database for selected contributions. Extensive information is also available by campaign and committee for the current year. Registration and reporting forms, reporting dates, results for the previous three general federal elections, and a variety of FEC publications are also online.
STATES & TERRITORIES
The Secretary of State‘s election information includes searchable databases of candidate lists and election night returns, proposed statewide and local constitutional amendments, and other data pertaining to elections in 1999 and 2000. (No elections are scheduled to take place in 2001.) The page also contains general voter’s information and the Fair Campaign Practices Act.
For the current election, the Division of Elections offers absentee ballot forms and filing instructions, as well as the year’s election calendar and reports of the status of petitions. In 2000, as the election approached, this information also included overviews of candidates, arguments for and against ballot measures, and evaluations of judicial candidates. Scroll down the page for election results, which date back to 1994. The site contains extensive general information, such as calendars, polling places, and pertinent regulations and statutes.
The Elections Department of the Secretary of State offers ballot measures (including fiscal impact analyses ), a list of candidates, and results from previous elections. Among the other resources are campaign finance data (including a searchable database of political action committees) and a lobbyist search engine.
The Secretary of State’s Elections Department posts the text of newly adopted constitutional amendments, information about absentee ballots and voter registration, and election results. In 2000, as the election approached, the site also disclosed candidate information, certified ballot issues, and election calendars. Scroll to the bottom of the page for a link to a search engine for financial disclosure filings .
The Secretary of State’s Elections Division posts candidate lists, texts of ballot initiatives, election results dating back to 1996, and information about absentee voting, filing for office, recall, and election fraud.
The Secretary of State’s Elections Center posts the current election calendar and proposed initiatives, as well as rosters of state or federal political action committees and state issue committees (all with contact information Other information includes the text of proposed initiatives, election calendars, election results (as far back as 1996) a roster of registered lobbyists, forms for voter registration and absentee ballots, a search engine for candidate financial transactions, and the Fair Campaign Practices Act. During the 2000 election season, it also offered candidate lists and search engines for candidates and committee reports.) The center accepts online registration of candidacies.
The Secretary of the State’s Election Services posts election results, absentee ballot and voter registration information and forms, electronic and paper campaign finance reports, and the election calendar.
The Commissioner of Elections resources include a candidate’s list, a polling place locator, an election calendar, and vote results dating back to 1996. The site also offers voter registration information, school election forms and a calendar, and a table of offices up for election (from federal down to city). To retrieve summaries of campaign finance reports, choose Public Reports under Campaign Finance Information System.
The Board of Elections and Ethics posts the times and locations of polling places, the results of previous elections (dating back to 1994), and information about elected officials, voter registration, and applying to be a candidate. The Elections 2000 link (which is still live at the time of this writing) includes a calendar of elections, candidate lists, and voter instructions in English and Spanish. There’s a link to the Office of Campaign Finance, which posts a guide and forms.
This somber, straightforward site of the Department of State’s Division of Elections gives no hint of the officer’s high-profile role in the 2000 presidential election. The site offers election results (back to 1978), election calendars, and searchable databases of campaign finance records, candidates (including federal), and political committees It’s also possible to check the status and requirements for initiative petitions. During the 2000 election it posted a list of offices to be filled.
The Elections Division of the Secretary of State has absentee ballot forms, as well as election results, campaign contribution disclosure reports (updated to meet new requirements), forms for voter registration and notices of candidacy, and links to the Federal Election Commission and the State Ethics Commission (which has lists of lobbyists and their expenditures). For the 2000 election, it posted the candidate list, which is still online.
The Office of Elections posts unofficial summary reports of election results by county, dating back to 1996. An absentee ballot, voter registration form, and application for nomination papers are available. The Useful Internet Links include a pointer to the Campaign Spending Commission, which offers access to electronic filings by candidates.
The Election Division of the Secretary of State posts the results of previous elections (back to 1994) by federal and state office. The page also has proposed initiatives and constitutional amendments, lists of federal and state legislative candidates, a searchable database of campaign finance reports, rosters of lobbyists, and voter registration and other general information. The requirements for running in 2002 are already online.
The State Board of Elections offers searchable databases of candidates, election results, political committees, and campaign contributions (which covers some committees only, through 1998). For more recent contributor information, browse the latest electronically filed reports. In addition to general voter registration information, the site has a search tool for locating an elected official or district by address.
Besides election results, the Elections Division of the Secretary of State posts a variety of election guides, candidate lists, and a searchable database of campaign finance reports. To browse the roster of registered lobbyists, take the on the Campaign Finance page to the Lobby Registration Commission.
The Elections and Voter Registration Division of the Secretary of State has election calendars through 2003, election results back to 1996, candidacy forms, and voter registration information. During the 2000 election it posted a list of candidates and statement of the constitutional question up for vote. Look under Election Information for links to county Websites.
The Elections and Legislative Matters Division of the Secretary of State posts official election results and information about advance voting. Historic information is available back to 1988.
The Secretary of State’s Election Division offers an election calendar, results, summaries of recent legislation that affects elections in the state, and general voter information. Take the link to the Registry of Election Finance to view campaign financial reports. For the 2000 election, the division included e-mail addresses, where available, in its list of candidates, and made returns available by Telnet as they came in during election night.
The Department of Elections and Registration posts the current and previous year’s election calendar and extensive information about absentee voting, voter registration, and fraud investigations.
The Secretary of State’s Bureau of Corporations, Elections, and Commissions reports prior vote tabulations and gives information about upcoming elections, voter registration, absentee ballots, and municipal elections. For the 2000 election it provided a list of candidates, ballot referendum questions, and electoral college information. The candidate reporting forms heading links to the Commission on Governmental Ethics and Practices site, which does not make public filings available online.
The State Board of Elections posts lists of candidates and offices on the ballot as well as statewide and local ballot questions for the current election (which, as of this writing, was the most recent one). Election results appear under Past Elections. The campaign finance database now allows searching for contributions received by or expenditures made by campaign committees.
The Elections Division offers guides covering voter registration, absentee ballots, running for office, and more. Ballot questions and voting results of the 2000 election are also available. For the 2000 election, the site provided the text of ballot questions and a list of offices up for vote. Take the Office of Campaign and Political Finance link to view images of financial reports filed by candidates and state ballot question committee and to search a database of contributors.
The Electronic Voter Guide of the Bureau of Elections of the Department of State posts election calendars (through 2002), candidates, and results; for the 2000 election, this information included statewide ballot proposals. Campaign finance statements filed by committees are online, as are the filing forms for committees, for lobbyists, and for persons with casino interests (who are prohibited from making state and local political contributions).
The Secretary of State posts 2000 election results, as well as a voter’s guide and a search tool for locating polling places. Financial information is available from the Campaign Finance and Public Disclose Board, which also maintains lists of lobbyists. The link to this board appears under Campaign Practices/Finances, which has reporting forms. The site also offers voter registration and absentee ballot information. For the 2000 election, it offered a calendar and a list of candidates.
The Secretary of State Elections Division has a searchable database of candidates, the text and status of initiatives since 1993, a calendar, a list of candidates, and the initiatives on the ballot. Election Results contains a pull-down menu for primaries, elections, and run-offs in 1999 and 2000. Campaign Finance has reports for statewide candidates, grouped by filing dates, as well as the filing forms. The Lobbying heading offers searchable directories of lobbyists and clients, as well as a search engine for compensation reports.
The Office of the Secretary of State leads off its home page with a calendar, list of offices being elected, candidate filing guidelines, an absentee ballot request, and other general information. Archived election information dates back to 1998 and includes the text of ballot measures, candidate changes to the ballot, and, for some, the vote tally. In 2000, the November 7 returns were available online starting on election night, and visitors were able to view all returns or sort the database by such parameters are county, ballot issues, statewide offices, district, and court.
The Secretary of State offers candidate lists, an election calendar, ballot issues, and election results since 1992. The site also lists legislators affected by term limits and explains voter registration, absentee balloting, and filing to run.
The Secretary of State has a wealth of information about the 2000 and 1998 elections, such as results, constitutional amendments, initiative petitions, and sample ballots. For 2000, the election calendar and list of candidates are still available. The page also information about absentee voting, filing as a candidate, and voter registration.
In addition to archiving election results back to 1998, the Secretary of State’s Elections Division posts the election calendar, ballot questions, and lists of candidates. It also has information and forms for candidacy and minority party contributions, a guide to recall, and the text of circulating petitions, The site has a browsable roster of political action committees and forms for candidate contribution reports. The legislative tracking feature monitors bills that have been signed by the governor and the Secretary of State or vetoed by the governor.
The Elections Division of the Department of State posts election results under Election Information. Besides general voter information (such as registration, absentee balloting, and the identities of various elected officials), the site offers polling places and hours, rosters of lobbyists and political action committees, and committee, candidate, and party financial reports. Forms for registering political action committees or reporting their receipts and expenses are available.
The Division of Elections of the Department of Law and Public Safety posts the election calendar and explains voter registration and absentee balloting. For previous elections (1998-2000), the site divides the results by race and ballot question and lists candidates and public questions. Take the link to the State Election Law Enforcement Commission for campaign finance forms and a searchable database of filings.
The Secretary of State’s Bureau of Elections makes. election results available by office and by county for 1998 and 2000; statistics are also online for 1996 and 1994. The site also provides general voter information and a roster of elected state officials. Information for the 2002 primary will go up on October 1, 2001. Before the 2000 election, the site posted the general election calendar and the text of proposed constitutional amendments.
The State Board of Education posts election results since 1994 and, when it has been certified by the legislature, the political calendar for the next election. As the 2000 election approached, the site provided the ballot and the ballot proposition for viewing. Campaign finance filings are accessible from the site, which also has lists of committees that are active or in the campaign finance database.
The State Board of Elections has the current year’s election calendar, a list of candidates from the most recent election, election results dating back to 1992, and general voter information. The Campaign Finance resources include rosters of registered committees, reporting forms, and filed campaign finance reports.
The Elections page of the Secretary of State’s site has election results since 1996, posted by county. During the 2000 campaign, the site posted a candidate list and text of constitutional measures on the upcoming ballot. Online forms include absentee ballots, recall petitions, and candidacy papers. Campaign finance disclosure reports are available for state races back to 1998.
The Secretary of State posts a a voter guide, absentee ballot information, and the latest election’s list of candidates, ballot language, and results . Under Election Services it has general voter information, past election results, and campaign finance forms and deadlines. The Campaign Finance Division offers reporting forms, a calendar, and a searchable database of filings.
The State Election Board provides candidate lists, the election calendar, the ballot text of state questions, and results for elections from 1996-2000. During 2000, the same resources were available for that year’s election. Information about voter registration, absentee voting, and the Election Board fills out the page.
The Elections Division of the Secretary of State has searchable databases of the current calendar, candidates (currently, in the most recent election), political committees (which includes summaries of financial activity), and initiatives, referendums, and referrals. The site offers voter registration information, candidates’ manuals, guides and forms for campaign finance reporting, and finders for elected and elections officials.
The Department of State’s division of Commissions, Elections, & Legislation posts the dates and list of candidates for the 2001 special election. The election data archives have election calendars from 1998-2001 and results since 1997. The site includes information about absentee ballots, voter registration, and qualifying to run.
The Commission of Election posts 2000 election results in English. Other resources are in Spanish, including pull-down menus for legislative election results since 1992 and browsable results for a variety of election types (some dating back to 1932). More historical data is available in English at the Elections in Puerto Rico site.
The Elections Division of the Secretary of State has currently replaced its top page information with a hot button to election results, which leads to the Board of Elections page. The Board of Elections posts a calendar of upcoming elections, returns dating back to 1992, voter registration information, and forms and deadlines for campaign finance reports. A list of contributors is available only for 1998.
The State Election Commission posts the results and calendar from the 2000 election. It also has information about voting, voter registration, and running for office.
The Secretary of State’s Elections Information provides texts of ballot question and the proposed constitutional amendment, offices to be filled, and an abbreviate calendar for 2002 elections. Historical information dates back to 1988 and includes official returns, approved measures, ballot texts, and calendars. Voter registration and absentee ballot information is available. On election night, returns are online beginning at 8 PM Central Time.
The Department of State Division of Elections has the list of candidates and calendar for the 2000 election, as well as results for the August and November 2000 votes. The page also has information about voter registration and filing for office.
The Secretary of State’s Elections Division posts the election calendar and candidate lists (with links to home pages, where available), as well as guides and forms for voter registration and becoming a candidate. Historical vote tallies go back to 1848, for presidential elections; otherwise, the election history dates back only to 1992. In 2000, the site posted unofficial returns hourly throughout election night.
The State Elections Office post election results dating back to 1982. Candidate information includes offices up for election (through 2004), instructions for filing, and a searchable database of financial disclosure reports. Information about pending initiatives and propositions appears under Propositions, Initiatives, and Referendums. The site lists registered lobbyists, political action committees, and political parties and maintains searchable databases of disclosure reports filed by corporations, political action committees, and political issues committees. Information is also available about voter registration, absentee ballots, and current state and federal officials.
The Secretary of State’s Elections and Campaign Finance Division posts election results back to 1995. During the 2000 campaign it also offered the election calendar, a list of candidates, and links to their Websites. The site has two searchable campaign finance databases, one for 2000 and one covering 1916-2000. There are three search tools for the lobbyist registry database; One retrieves registration information, another identifies lobbyists’ employers, and the third discloses reported gifts to legislators and administrative officials. Candidate and lobbyist registration and disclosure forms are available, as is voter registration information.
Election results (back to 1995) appear under Election Info on the State Board of Elections home page. That subpage also gives election calendars for the past two years, candidate lists ballot issues, and the five-year election schedule (through 2004),as well as vacancies to be filled and referendums in local special elections. The Campaign Finance page houses reporting forms and calendars, a searchable database of electronically filed disclosure reports, and a list of political action committees. Information about voter registration and running for office is also available from the site.
The Secretary of State Election Division’s election information page posts a detailed 2001 election calendar and voter registration and candidate filing information. For the 2000 election, it offered ballot initiatives, a guide to the candidates, and a link to TVW, the state’s public affairs network, for a video voter’s guide and candidate statements in RealAudio and RealVideo. It also made election results available online immediately after the polls closed on November 7. The Elections Division’s main page posts election results back to 1996, ballot initiatives, lists of candidates and offices up for election, and the election calendar. For campaign finance information, the site points to the Federal Election Commission and the Washington Public Disclosure Commission. There is also information about filing procedures and voter registration. Hearing reports are available on proposed changes to the blanket primary system.
The Secretary of State’s Elections Division lists municipalities holding elections in 2001. During the 2000 campaign, it provided offices and candidates on the ballot, constitutional amendments and ballot issues, and the election calendar; all of this information is currently still online. The most recent election results appear on the top page, as well as under Election Statistics. Campaign finance disclosure reports are searchable by candidate and political action committee. Forms for candidates, financial disclosure, and absentee ballots are available from the site.
The Elections Board posts election results back to 1996; current candidates and election dates; all committees, groups, and other entities registered with the Board; and Board forms. Campaign finance information includes reporting dates, summary listings of filings, scanned images of late filings, a list of candidates who applied for a Wisconsin Election Campaign Fund grant for the spring 2001 election, and ballot access documents. Among the designated “hot topics” is the resolution of the State Elections Board decertifying punch card voting systems.
The Secretary of State’s Election Administration posts deadlines and key dates for the 2002 election, as well as election results from 1996-2000. Information for the 2000 election (which is still online) included ballot issues; rosters of candidates, their committees, and their Websites; a list of judges who have filed for retention; offices up for election; and the names of presidential electors. The Lobbyist page includes forms and a roster; activity reports are available by e-mail, on request. The site a roster of political action committees, as well as general voter information (including registration forms).
©Kathy Biehl 2001. All Rights Reserved.