Myroslava Kryvonos is a librarian at the Legal Library of the Ukrainian Legal Foundation (http://www.civilsoc.org/nisorgs/ukraine/kyiv/lglfnd.htm; http://www.civilsoc.org/usnisorg/law-hr/sabreukr.htm) in Kyiv, Ukraine. In 1971, she graduated from the Kyiv State University and holds the diploma of a specialist in the automatic processing of language information from this University.
Research for this article was supported in part by a grant from the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA), US Department of State under the Freedom Support Act (FSA). ECA is not responsible for the views expressed herein. Research was also done with the support of the New York University Law Library. 1
- 1. Introduction
- 2. The Source of State Power
- 3. The Division of State Power
- 4. The Special Legal Status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
- 5. The History of the Ukrainian Legal System
- 6. Main Sources of the Ukrainian Law
- 7. The Fields of Ukrainian Legislative System
- 8. Legal Education in Ukraine
- 9. Access to Legal Materials
- 10. Legal Citations
- 11. Other Legal Related Sources
With the proclamation of its independence in 1991, Ukraine embarked on a long and difficult journey towards becoming a democratic, rule-of-law state. Ten years later internal economic and political problems continue to complicate Ukraine’s progress.
Having chosen to restore its statehood and pursue an independent path in international politics, Ukraine began to built its relations with the world community, relying first and foremost on generally acknowledged norms and principles of international law as major criteria of Ukraine’s activity on the world scene. Ukraine strives to fully incorporate international legal standards in its domestic legislation and make it consistent with international norms. In 1996, the newly adopted Ukrainian Constitution declared that “Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic, social, law-based state”.
This proclamation, along with the undertaking of human rights protection as the “main duty of the state”2, marked a striking departure from the Soviet era when the Communist party played a leading role in the society. Ukraine has become a republic with a presidential form of government. It is a unitary state with a single citizenship. Since its independence, Ukraine has made remarkable progress in the creation of the new legislation for ensuring human rights and freedoms, and social progress.
The people are the bearers of sovereignty and the only source of power in Ukraine3. The people exercise power directly and through bodies of state power and bodies of local self-government. The right to determine and change the constitutional order in Ukraine belongs exclusively to the people and shall not be usurped by the State, its bodies or officials.
The expression of the will of the people is exercised through elections, referendums and other political forms of democracy. Citizens of Ukraine, who have attained the age of eighteen on the day of the elections and referendums have the right to vote at the elections and referendums4.
Elections to the bodies of the state power and bodies of local self-government are held on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage, by secret ballot.
An All-Ukrainian referendum is designated by the Verkhovna Rada (the Parliament) or by the President of Ukraine. It is called on popular initiative on the request of no less than three million citizens of Ukraine who have the right to vote, and on the condition that the signatures in favor of designating the referendum have been collected in no less than two-thirds of the oblasts (regions) with no less than 100 000 signatures in each oblast. A referendum shall not be permitted in regard to draft laws on issues of taxes, the budget, and amnesty.
The sole body of legislative power in Ukraine is the Parliament C the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Its constitutional composition consists of 450 National Deputies who are elected for a four-year term.
- introducing amendments to the Constitution;
- designating an All-Ukrainian referendum;
- adopting laws;
- approving the State Budget and controlling its implementation;
- declaring war and concluding peace;
- confirming, within two days from the moment of the address by the President, decrees on the introduction of martial law or of a state of emergency, on total or partial mobilization, and on the announcement of particular areas as zones of an ecological emergency situation;
- granting consent to the binding character of international treaties and denouncing international treaties of Ukraine6.
According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the President of Ukraine is the head of State and acts in its name. The Law of Ukraine On the President of the SSR of Ukraine (adopted on July 5, 1991) proclaims him a head of the executive power. The President
- ensures state independence;
- represents the state in international relations and concludes international treaties of Ukraine;
- revokes acts of the Cabinet of Ministers and acts of the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea;
- forwards the submission to the Verkhovna Rada of the declaration on a state of war;
- adopts a decision, in the event of necessity, on the introduction of a state of emergency;
- establishes courts;
- signs laws adopted by the Verkhovna Rada and has the right to veto laws adopted by the Verkhovna Rada with their subsequent return for repeat consideration by the Parliament7.
The Cabinet of Ministers is the highest body in the system of bodies of the executive power responsible to the President of Ukraine. It is composed of the Prime Minister, the First Vice Prime Minister, three Vice Prime Ministers and the Ministers. The personal composition of the Cabinet is appointed by the President on the submission of the Prime Minister. The executive power in oblasts and districts is executed by local state administrations. The Cabinet:
- ensures the state sovereignty and economic independence of Ukraine, the implementation of domestic and foreign policy of the State, the execution of the legislation;
- elaborates the draft law on the State Budget and ensures the implementation of the Budget adopted by the Verkhovna Rada, and
- takes measures to ensure the defense, national security, public order and to combat crime8.
The executive power in blasts, districts, and in the cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol is exercised by local state administrations. They ensure on their respective territory legality and legal order.9
The mechanism of the Judicial Power in Ukraine consists of two parts: Procuracy and Courts.
The Constitution envisages that the Procuracy of Ukraine constitutes a unified system that is entrusted with:
- prosecution in court on behalf of the State;
- the representation of the interests of a citizen or of the State in court;
- the supervision of laws observance by bodies that conduct detective and search activity, inquiry and pre-trial investigation;
- the supervision of laws observance in the execution of judicial decisions in criminal cases, and also in the application of other measures of coercion related to the restraint of the personal liberty of citizens.
According to the principle of the state power division the Procuracy does not belongs directly to the judicial branch of power, but is a special body of state authorities which on behalf of the Verkhovna Rada and Cabinet of Ministers executes the higher supervision of law observance in the state.
The Procuracy of Ukraine is headed by the Procurator General, who is appointed to office with the consent of the Verkhovna Rada, and dismissed from office by the President of Ukraine. The organization and operational procedure for the bodies of the Procuracy are determined by the law of Ukraine On the Procuracy adopted on November 5, 1991, which needs to be amended now.
Justice in Ukraine is administered exclusively by courts. According to the Constitution, courts constitute a self-sufficient authority functioning independently of other bodies or officials10. The jurisdiction of courts extends to all legal relations that arise in the State. Judicial proceedings are performed by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine and courts of general jurisdiction.
The Constitutional Court of Ukraine is the sole body of constitutional jurisdiction. It decides on the issues of a conformity of laws and other legal acts with the Constitution and provides the official interpretation of the Constitution and laws. It is composed of eighteen judges. The President of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and the Congress of Judges of Ukraine each appoint six judges to the Constitutional Court. Its authority comprises:
- deciding on issues of conformity with the Constitution (constitutionality) of laws and other legal acts of the Verkhovna Rada, acts of the President and the Cabinet of Ministers, and legal acts of the Verkhovna Rada of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea;
- the official interpretation of the Constitution and the laws of Ukraine.
The Constitutional Court adopts decisions that are mandatory for execution throughout the territory of the country, that are final and shall not be appealed. Laws and other legal acts, or their separate provisions, that are deemed to be unconstitutional, lose legal force.
The system of courts of general jurisdiction is formed in accordance with the territorial principle and the principle of specialization11. In accordance with the Constitution and the Law On the Judicial System of Ukraine as amended on June 21, 2001, it includes local courts, courts of appeal, the specialized courts with their highest judicial bodies, and the Supreme Court of Ukraine. These courts handle civil, criminal, administrative and commercial matters. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction. The highest judicial bodies of specialized courts are the respective high courts, as are commercial (previously named as arbitration) courts with their Higher Commercial Court. The law on the system of the administrative courts is under elaboration now. The creation of extraordinary and special courts shall not be permitted. The Verkhova Rada makes further efforts to improve the judicial system. The new draft law on the Judicial System has been passed the first reading on December 12, 2001.
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is an inseparable constituent part of Ukraine and decides on the issues ascribed to its competence within the limits of authority determined by the Constitution of Ukraine12.
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea has its own Constitution that is adopted by the Verkhovna Rada of the Autonomous Republic and approved by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Normative legal acts of the Verkhovna Rada of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and decisions of the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic shall not contradict the Constitution and the laws of Ukraine and are adopted in accordance with the Constitution of Ukraine, the laws of Ukraine, acts of the President of Ukraine and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, and for their execution.
For reasons of nonconformity of normative legal acts of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea with the Constitution of Ukraine and the laws of Ukraine, the President of Ukraine may suspend these normative legal acts of the Verkhovna Rada of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea with a simultaneous appeal to the Constitutional Court of Ukraine in regard to their constitutionality.
The Ukrainian legal system is very close to the Romano-Germanic legal family. After the October Revolution of 1917 the establishment of the Soviet law in Ukraine was tightly connected to the spreading of soviet power and creation of Soviet state bodies. The peculiarity of the Soviet legal system in Ukraine was that it was based on the legal system of the Bolshevik Russia. That is, it was a reception in a very primitive form: the application of the laws of one state in the conditions of the other. As in every federal state, in the USSR the competencies were divided between the Union and the Union Republics. Foundations of legislation, codes, laws, decrees of the Presidiums of the Supreme Councils of the USSR and Ukraine, various legal acts adopted by all-Union and Republic Ministries, including those adopted jointly with the CPSU Central Committee, regulations, instructions, guiding materials, statutes, branch enactment and even the revolutionary feeling of justice were used as legal sources. Judicial practice did not belong to the legal sources. The access to the legislation was restricted. The criteria of such restrictions were not defined, but in essence it was a policy of depriving people of their individual rights and liberties.
After the independence declaration the need has appeared to build a new state and to reform the existing legal system in accordance with the state building tasks. So the main challenges stood for a new state: to reject the inappropriate dogmas of the soviet law and to establish the backgrounds and elements of market economy with its legal relationships. The promulgation of new legislation has begun with adapting relevant norms, the adoption of normative acts in the fields of relations, which had not been regulated by the current legislation, and development of the large codification embracing all areas of law. Joining the Council of Europe, Ukraine has taken obligations to improve its legislation in regards with the human rights protection, and to ensure legal and judicial reform. This gave a great impetus for the acceleration of systematic change in the legislative system of Ukraine, especially in the fields of civil and criminal law, as well as judiciary.
The Ukrainian legislative system is based on the systematically organized and concerted legal rules (norms) which are combined to constitute different legal fields.
The principal source of Ukrainian law is the Constitution of Ukraine having the highest legal force. The norms of the Constitution of Ukraine are norms of a direct effect. Appeals to the court in defense of the constitutional rights and freedoms of the individual and citizen are guaranteed directly on the grounds of the Constitution. Social life should be based on the principles of political, economic and ideological diversity. No ideology shall be recognized by the State as mandatory. The principle of the rule of law was recognized by the Constitution and became effective. Laws and other normative legal acts should be adopted on its basis and conform to it.
Normative legal acts embrace not only laws proper (zakon) but also various normative acts of competent state bodies issued on the basis of laws, in accordance with laws and for their execution. Normative legal acts in Ukraine have different legal validity depending on the law-making subject.
In accordance with the Decree of the Verkhovna Rada On the order of temporary validity of some legal acts of the former USSR on the territory of Ukraine, such documents are in force in some branches till the adoption of the new legislation. Their texts had been published in the bulletins of the former Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR.
In Ukraine the right to adopt laws belongs exclusively to the competencies of the Verkhovna Rada. The Article 92 of the Constitution point out the important issues and relations which are governed exclusively by the laws of Ukraine. They have the highest legal force in the state. The right of legislative initiative in the Verkhovna Rada belongs to the President, National Deputies, the Cabinet of Ministers, and the National Bank of Ukraine.
The Verkhovna Rada and other state authority bodies are entitled to issue normative acts of the under-law-level in questions assigned to their jurisdiction. The President of Ukraine, on the basis and for the execution of the Constitution and the laws of Ukraine, issues decrees (ukazy) and directives (rozporiadzhennia). The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, within the limits of its competence, issues resolutions (postanovy) and orders (rozporiadzhennia). All the documents produces by the highest power bodies are mandatory for execution on the territory of Ukraine.
Individual ministries, state agencies and committees, in pursuance of laws of Ukraine, issue resolutions, directives, regulations, instructions and normative orders, which concern their specific sphere of competence.
All these normative legal acts, normative acts of the National Bank of Ukraine and international treaties of Ukraine are registered at the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine.
Local state administrations and bodies of local self-government issue resolutions, orders, decisions etc. to ensure the observance of laws and freedoms of citizens, and the implementation of development programs and regional budgets.
Normative legal acts of the Verkhovna Rada and the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea are adopted in accordance with the Constitution of Ukraine, the laws of Ukraine, acts of the President and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and for their execution.
Another type of law source is a normative legislative (law-making) treaty being a mutual agreement and containing the legal rules established by law-making subjects as a result of their multilateral agreement and supported by the state. Such agreements are very important in the spheres of civil, commercial and assets relations.
International acts are the special type of these rules. Ukraine has gained considerable experience in international affairs while still a part of the Soviet Union. Ukraine was one of the founding members of the United Nations. It took part in the conclusion of numerous international treaties, and has been active at international conferences. International treaties being in force are granted the consent of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine to be binding and constitute a part of the national legislation. The conclusion of international treaties that contravene the Constitution of Ukraine is possible only after introducing relevant amendments to the Constitution.
Acts which govern the observance, execution and application of legal norms (law-implementation acts) are issued by competent bodies or officials within the limits of their authority, e.g. the procuracy, courts or administrative commissions. The acts of the official interpretation (defining legal acts) of legal norms and acts are formulated by law-making or special competent bodies such as courts.
Legal custom, ecclesiastical rules and judicial practice have a very restricted usage in the Ukrainian legislation. The doctrine consisting of commentaries, articles, books, encyclopedias is not recognized as a source of law.
In accordance with the differentiation of public and private law the following large law fields are defined in the legislative system of Ukraine.
Constitutional law which establishes the political and state system, rights, freedoms and duties of citizens, legal status of the Supreme Council, the President, the Cabinet of Ministers, other bodies of state executive power and of local authorities, the Procuracy, the justice system, territorial structure, state symbols etc. The main source of constitutional law is the Constitution of Ukraine.
Civil law includes the legal rules governing the ownership and non-property relations, as well as personal relations between the objects of public relation in order to satisfy their demands. The main act in this field is the Civil Code of Ukraine current from July 8, 1963 with amendments. On November 29, 2001 the Verkhovna Rada has approved in the second reading the new Civil Code. It contains six books and sets forth basically a new (for Ukraine) system of norms to govern civil relations. Taking into account new constitutional approaches to the human being and its inalienable rights it fixes individual non-property rights of a person and governs relations which enforce these rights. This Code introduces new types of agreements into the legal practice: factoring, franchising, and rent service or inherited contracts etc.
Labor law includes the legal rules collected in the Labor Code and governing the relations as to the labor contracts, working time and conditions, safety at the working place, social protection, the order of labor disputes resolution etc.
Matrimonial law relates to the grounds of marriage, its solemnization and dissolution, personal ownership and non-property rights and duties of the spouses, relations between parents and children, adoption issues etc. Such rules are incorporated into the Code on Family which was adopted on January 10, 2002.
Financial law regulates issues of the state budget, banking, tax system, etc. and its object of regulation is money and securities. The formation of financial system of Ukraine is in permanent progress. In 2001 the Budget Code has passed before the Verkhovna Rada. The Tax Code is being developed now.
Land law includes the legal rules governing land use and protection. Here the main source is the Land Code of Ukraine adopted on October 25, 2001, which has established the private ownership of lands. For the comprehensive information support of the land reform in Ukraine the web-site is created. It contains English full-text versions of the Land, Water Resources, Subsoil and Forestry Codes of Ukraine.
Administrative law is based on the legal rules on the relations between the bodies of state government, executive and command activities, corpus delicti of administrative offenses, etc. The main source of administrative law is the Code on Administrative Infractions. The Verchovna Rada aims at the elaboration of the draft law on the administrative courts and administrative code of Ukraine.
Criminal law includes the legal rules defining criminal acts, forms of guilt, punishment making, discharge or mitigation. The main source of criminal law is the new Criminal Code of Ukraine. The Code was adopted on April 5, 2001 and went into force from September 1, 2001. Its main novel is the replacement of the death penalty for the gravy crimes by the perpetual imprisonment. It also envisages such new types of punishment, such as public works, arrest, deprivation of liberty, and official restrictions for persons on military service.
Correctional law includes the legal rules governing the relations resulting from the execution of punishment and penal treatment. The main source of the law is the Correctional Code.
Law of Civil Procedure
Law of civil procedure includes the legal rules governing the procedure of the court consideration and solving of civil cases, and enforcement of writs. They are combined in the Civil Procedural Code.
Commercial law regulates contractual relations and conflicts between legal entities, citizens and/or a state. Commercial Procedural Code envisages that commercial court brings an action on the basis of the entrepreneurial activity subject claim about protection of its legal rights, as well as the notices of suit from state authorities, procuracy or the Chamber of Accounting of Ukraine.
Procedural Criminal Law
Procedural criminal law relates to the commencement of criminal proceedings, investigation, and court examination of criminal cases. The Criminal Action Code regulates these issues.
International law governs relations between states (public) or between citizens of different countries and their associations (private). As Ukraine being a part to numerous multilateral and bilateral international treaties, agreements and conventions, they are included into the domestic legislation and determine international status of Ukraine.
The legislative system of Ukraine includes other specialized codes, each of which has its own inner structure and governs relations in its field.
Legal education in Ukraine is centered in the state and private colleges and universities. The four years education gives a bachelor’s degree; graduates after five years studies receive the certificate of the specialist. Everybody has a possibility to continue his education and scientific research at the masters and postgraduate courses. The legal profession unites the members of the judiciary and the procuracy, the lawyers employed in criminal investigation, the bar, the notaries, the jurisconsultus (legal advisors of enterprises, factories, etc.). The most outstanding law professionals are members of the Academy of Law Sciences of Ukraine. The Ukrainian-American Bar Association, the Ukrainian Bar Association, the Association of Lawyers of Ukraine and other professional organizations gather specialists according their interests.
According to the Constitution, laws and other normative legal acts that determine the rights and duties of citizens shall be brought to the notice of the population otherwise they are not in force13. As a rule, the laws of Ukraine or acts of the President enter in force in ten days after their official promulgation, unless otherwise envisaged by the documents themselves or the special resolution about the order of their implementation was adopted, but not prior to the day of the publication in an official printed edition. The acts of the Cabinet of Ministers enter into force from the date of their adoption. Those acts determining the rights and duties of citizens enter into force only after their official publication.
Laws and other acts of the Supreme Council are officially published in the state Ukrainian language in the weekly Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady (Official Bulletin of the Supreme Council) and in the daily newspaper of the Supreme Council Golos Ukrainy (Voice of Ukraine).
Presidential and governmental acts are officially published in the daily Uriadovyj Kurier (Official Express) and Zibrannia postanov uriadu Ukrainy (Compilation of the Resolutions of the Government of Ukraine).
After having been registered in the Uniform state register legal acts are published in the weekly Oficijnyj Visnyk Ukrainy (Official Gazette of Ukraine) issued by the Ministry of Justice. It has an electronic version, a version with an electronic supplement and an electronic digest in Russian.
Normative legal acts of the Verhkovna Rada and decisions of the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the executive orders of the local representatives of the President of Ukraine and local state administrations, decisions of local self-government bodies are published in the local publication media.
Many other media sources publish normative legal acts, but these are only informative publications, e.g. the weekly Jurydychnyi Visnyk Ukrainy (Legal Bulletin of Ukraine), the newspaper Zbirnyk potochnoho zakonodavstva, normatyvnykh aktiv, arbitrazhnoi ta sudovoi praktyky (Digest of current legislation, normative acts, arbitral and court practice), the journal Pravo Ukrainy (Law of Ukraine), the comprehensive business newspaper Halyts=ki kontrakty (Halycian Contracts), the newspaper Zakon i biznes (Law & Business). Many periodicals contain the collections of documents from different fields of legislation (labor, taxation, customs, etc.).
Decisions of courts are published in special digests of law reports. Visnyk Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy (Bulletin of the Supreme Court of Ukraine) and Zbirnyk postanov Plenumu Verkhovnoho Sudu Ukrainy (Compilation of the resolutions of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of Ukraine) contains decisions, decrees and interpretations.
In addition to the above mentioned periodicals, known new publishers such as Jurinkom Inter, Naukova dumka, Atika, Osnowy (Kyiv), Konsum (Kharkiv) give timely information of current legal materials in treatises and law reviews.
International treaties of Ukraine are not subject to the regular publication. Usually they are placed into the Collection of Current International Treaties of Ukraine “Zibrannia chynnykh mizhnarodnyhk dogovoriv Ukrainy” as well as into the above mentioned editions. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine holds the system of their registration.
The development of electronic media is under progress now. The Parliament provides free access to its electronic database in Ukrainian, which contains current and draft laws.
Daily updated database Draft Laws of Ukraine offers (in Ukrainian and English versions) texts with comments and comprehensive information on people’s deputies of Ukraine, draft laws, their dynamics of passing, alternative drafts, the Verkhovna Rada agenda and its activity news.
The information and analytical center Liga maintains the fee based computer legal systems LIGA-ZAKON and information business-portal LIGA ONLINE offering all current legislative acts and draft laws in Ukrainian and Russian, consultations of professionals, directories, digest of economic press and court reports. The history of each document is traced there. Different specialized databases are provided for the practitioners too.
LOCMAN is a fee-based database of Ukrainian legislation beginning from 1922, which is produced and supported by the InfoResource center. The fee-based WEB-project “NAU Systems” provides the Ukraine legislation database “Legal Acts of Ukraine” in Ukrainian, Russian and English. The Center of Computer Technologies Jurist-Plus sells the monthly CD-edition of the financial legislation collections.
The site in Ukrainian and English versions offers texts of main legislative acts and information on law firms in Ukraine.
Ukraine is a contributing member to the Global Legal Information Network at the Library of Congress which contains full-text Ukrainian primary materials in vernacular and English abstracts of Ukrainian laws. The database allows free index search, but is not comprehensive.
Foreign law guide: current sources of codes and basic legislation in jurisdictions of the world by Thomas H. Reynolds and Arturo A. Flores is a research guide also available online.
I would mention at the end a selected bibliography Ukraine: Legal materials in English (1992-1993) carefully compiled and commented by Marta Tarnawsky that may be helpful for scientists, lawmakers, and practical lawyers.
The citation of legal sources has no special requests. To make a reference to a legislative act you must indicate its owner, type and title, the date of adoption or issuance and an official publication resource. The same data are sufficient to find the legal act in official resources, which contains research indices, or in other printed publications. The online information systems have their own searching tools, but still they are basing on the above mentioned information.
The Central Election Commission site presents its work and gives a lot of links to mass-media sources in Ukraine. Jaroslav Mudryj Institute of Legislation Problems holds its site where problems of Ukrainian legislation compliance with WTO norms are discussed. On the site of the Center of Comparative Law the analytical articles and documents concerning the adaptation of the Ukrainian legislation to the law of the EU are published. The popular site reflects different aspects of social life, including legal, financial, business and political issues, art, entertainment etc.
Important information also may be found at:
- NATLEX – Ukraine (International Labour Organisation)
- BRAMA: Ukrainian Law and Legal Matters (In Ukrainian and English)
- Ukraine-WWW references
- Pritchard Law Webs
- Internet Legal Resources Guide
- NYU Guide to Foreign and International Legal Databases
- World Law (Australasian Legal Information Institute)
- Legal Information Institute of the Cornell Law School
- LawGuru.com Internet Law Library
- Ukrainian Congress Committee of America
- fee-based business-oriented database in Ukrainian and English
- http://www.informjust.kiev.ua – presents the functioning of state registers
- http://www.bankrut.gov.ua, http://www.bkrtcy.com.ua, http://www.bankrupcy.com.ua – bankruptcy issues
- http://www.customs.ua – customs legislation and information for citizens
- The bulletin of the Tax Agency of Ukraine
- http://www.ssmsc.gov.ua – comprehensive information about the stock market of Ukraine and its participants from the State Commission on Securities and Stock Market.
- 1 The author would like to express her gratitude to Professor Kathleen Price, Director of the New York University Law Library, for being her host adviser during the fellowship on the above grant. The author also thanks Mirela Roznovschi, Reference Librarian for International and Foreign Law, New York University Law Library, for her encouragement, support, and input to the article. <back to text>
- 2 Constitution of Ukraine, Article 3. <back to text>
- 3 Constitution of Ukraine, Article 5. <back to text>
- 4 Constitution of Ukraine, Article 69. <back to text>
- 5 Constitution of Ukraine, Article 6. <back to text>
- 6 Constitution of Ukraine, Articles 75 through 101. <back to text>
- 7 Constitution of Ukraine, Articles 102 through 112. <back to text>
- 8 Constitution of Ukraine, Articles 113 through 117. <back to text>
- 9 Constitution of Ukraine, Articles 118 through 120. <back to text>
- 10 Constitution of Ukraine, Articles 124 through 131. <back to text>
- 11 Constitution of Ukraine, Articles 124 through 131. <back to text>
- 12 Constitution of Ukraine, Articles 134 through 139. <back to text>
- 13 Constitution of Ukraine, Article 57. <back to text>