Competitive Intelligence – A Selective Resource Guide – Updated December 2018

The accuracy and reliability of data, information, and research published on websites – whether they are hosted by federal, state and local government, corporations, academe, scholarly groups, news organizations, advocacy and professional associations, as well as individual, is subject to continuous review and evaluation to establish its accuracy, reliability and usefulness specific to the areas that pertain to your specific work. The requirements of many faceted work product, deliverables, assignments, publications, reports and specialized expert services demand that we in essence continually, rapidly, and effectively boil the vast ocean of knowledge that is in a continuous state of change.

2018 highlighted additional obstacles to researchers with the advancement of efforts to brand legitimate reporting, news and research resources as “fake” in an effort to marginalize, ring fence and demean publishers, journalists and researchers whose writing and work diverged from that of a prevailing force in American politics. As expert researchers, the clarion call of “fake news” heightened these challenges to our work, but also gave us opportunities to improve and expand critical skills and knowledge across a comprehensive range of sources. Our work is often time sensitive and yet it requires that we continuously practice effective examination of a broad and deep spectrum of information – to establish actionable facts. This work includes cross-checking data and routinely performing due diligence reviews on sources and publications which we cite and from which we source our operational work product.

More than ever perhaps the Internet is a dynamic ecosystem – sites often change URLs, the subject matter, focus and perspective may be impacted for reasons that are financial, political or even personal, and ownership of sites may change, resulting in dramatic changes to the quality and reliability of a site’s content. With increasing frequency, sites go offline or merge/are subsumed into other sites, with little or no notification to users, even if they are subscription based. New sites and services pop up, and researchers are challenged to make quick determinations as to their value. However, we have just so many hours in our work day to identify and efficiently use tools and resources that support our ability to accurately meet the requirements of our customers, users, patrons, and readers.

This guide remains focused on the requirements of multi-disciplinary subject matter researchers, a group of which I am a dedicated and a long standing member. This latest version of the guide includes dozens of updated links, deletion of sites that no longer exist , as well as numerous new, value added content. For 22 years, LLRX has not changed its URL and the webzine remains an independent, non-affiliated, one woman owned and edited publication. Please refer to this guide as a reliable resource on which you may depend and to which you will often refer as you engage in research, knowledge discovery, managing knowledge services, as well as an reliable resource for teaching and training programs. As always, I appreciate your suggestions to include additional sites and sources in this guide.  Thank you – and may your research always shine light on the facts, regardless of any efforts to bury, obscure and diminish them.

Selected Search Engines, Web Archives, Open Data Repositories – facilitate locating information, data and analytics via: Web, Blogs, News, Video and Opt-In Alerts.

Web and Data Search – searching and locating relevant, reliable and actionable information will benefit from consistently using a range of search engines, sources, applications and strategies in your research process. A selection of sources from which you may consider with assurance, dependent upon your specific research requirements, are as follows:

beSpacific is a free, factual, independent, one woman published current awareness research blog launched in 2002, delivered on the internet and via email, daily. BeSpacific is focused on reliable, accurate, comprehensive coverage of topical news and resources on subject matters that have impact here in America, as well as around the workd. Topics include: law and technology, legal research, government documents and FOIA, the global financial system, economics, healthcare, 21st century education, technology, cyber-security, privacy, civil liberties, and issues related to libraries in all sectors. Deep links located via expert, thorough research provide readers with direct access to an extensive range of timely documents from the government, academe, NGOs/IGOs, advocacy groups, corporate, news, tech and legal sectors. Sources include state, federal and foreign governments, open access databases, surveys, technical reports and education-based sources from legal, government, library, advocacy and academic communities, as well as from information innovators. The site’s searchable database has over 45,000 postings, and is updated daily – See also the beSpacific Twitter feed. Readers may also subscribe to free weekday updates providing the complete set of 10 daily postings in one HTML email. beSpacific was recognized in the ABA Top 100 Law Blogs. BeSpacific is the sister site to

Bing from Microsoft has a social media focus, replete with “images of the day” as well as top stories accompanying selected images. Search the web, news, images, videos, maps. Links to MSN, Office Online and integrate your office and desktop applications seamlessly. Sign in access to your own search history, saved searches and updates/alerts. Maps [U.S. and global] include – directions – driving walking, transit, traffic updates, commerce, gas prices, parking finder, taxi fares, travel info, history, weather and more e-commerce related content. The Bing Help directory provides user-friendly explanations for features and tools, including email alerts, updates and available search options. See also the Bing Help page for information on How Bing Delivers Search Results.

CiteSeerX “is an evolving scientific literature digital library and search engine that has focused primarily on the literature in computer and information science. CiteSeerx aims to improve the dissemination of scientific literature and to provide improvements in functionality, usability, availability, cost, comprehensiveness, efficiency, and timeliness in the access of scientific and scholarly knowledge. Rather than creating just another digital library, CiteSeerx attempts to provide resources such as algorithms, data, metadata, services, techniques, and software that can be used to promote other digital libraries. CiteSeerx has developed new methods and algorithms to index PostScript and PDF research articles on the Web.”

From InfoSpace, a reliable metasearch engine for the web, images, video and news, is dogpile. “InfoSpace created the Dogpile search engine because your time is important to us. Powered by Metasearch technology, Dogpile returns all the best results from leading search engines including Google and Yahoo!, so you find what you’re looking for faster. Each search engine has its own method of searching and each will return different results. Dogpile looks at all of them, decides which are most relevant to your search, eliminates duplicates and reveals them to you…Dogpile’s metasearch technology compiles all the best results in one easy-to-access place…”

BASE is one of the world’s most voluminous search engines especially for academic web resources. BASE provides more than 139 million documents from more than 6,734 sources. You can access the full texts of about 60% of the indexed documents for free (Open Access). BASE is operated by Bielefeld University Library. We are indexing the metadata of all kinds of academically relevant resources – journals, institutional repositories, digital collections etc. – which provide an OAI interface and use OAI-PMH for providing their contents (see our Golden Rules for Repository Managers and learn more about OAI at the Open Archives Initiative or Wikipedia).The index is continuously enhanced by integrating further sources (you can suggest a source which is not indexed yet). We are working on several new features like a claiming service for authors within the ORCID DE project.  BASE is a registered OAI service provider. Database managers can integrate the BASE index into their local infrastructure (e.g. meta search engines, library catalogues). Further on there are several tools and services for users, database and repository managers.”

The CyberCemetery is  an archive of government websites that have ceased operation (usually websites of defunct government agencies and commissions that have issued a final report). This collection features a variety of topics indicative of the broad nature of government information. In particular, this collection features websites that cover topics supporting the university’s curriculum and particular program strengths.”

DuckDuckGo – “The search engine that doesn’t track you – At DuckDuckGo, our vision is to raise the standard of trust online, and in service of that vision, our mission is to be the world’s most trusted search engine. We are proud to say that at the end of last year, we surpassed a cumulative count of 22 billion anonymous searches served. We are growing faster than ever with over 25 million direct user queries at the end of 2018. This is a search engine with: • Way more instant answers – DuckDuckGo enables you to search 100s of other sites directly (see the Help Library to help leverage the site’s commands and strategies using the site’s various features, tools and applications). Just use the drop-down menu on the upper right hand side of the search box. As you use it, your most frequented sites will automatically be displayed at the top. Search fields for conversions, calculations, facts, zero-click info sources and Real privacy – DuckDuckGo does not collect or share personal information.” This site hosts an excellent blog that provides actionable information to protect you and your devices from malicious intrusion, ad tracking and collection of your personal data by the vendors of your respective hardware and smartphones.

Exalead – Search for results from specific locations and sources (web sites, video, images, or Wikipedia). Use the advanced search feature, located to the right of the the main search box which opens as a drop-down menu on the left side of the search page and allowes user to specify: Search Language, Related Terms, Site Type, File Type, and Category/Subject.

Facebook – “As of 4 January 2018, Facebook was the world’s largest online social network, with 2.07 billion monthly users. Of these, 1.15 billion were mobile users. Facebook reached the 2-billion monthly user milestone on 30 June 2017.” Users may review features, new developments for mobile, features, and company information, via the Facebook Newsroom. Users may review Facebook user statistics and demographics here. Via Wikipedia: Facebook Graph Search “is a semantic search engine that was introduced by Facebook in March 2013. It is designed to give answers to user natural language queries rather than a list of links. The Graph Search feature (users must be logged into their account to use this feature) combines the big data acquired from its over 2 billion users and external data into a search engine providing user-specific search results.” (A video on how to use this feature is available here.) Facebook has been in the news throughout 2018 for issues ranging from privacy and data violations, and the Russia investigation. Celebrities have joined a growing bandwagon of users deleting their Facebook accounts.

FindLaw – Legal web, courts, news, and and topical legal content – the site is owned by Thomson Reuters.

Gigablast – As of 2015, Gigablast is one of the remaining four search engines in the United States that maintains its own searchable index of over a billion pages. Users may search the web or a selected topical directory. Try the Advanced Search feature to specify words, phrases, specific URLs and pages. After results are delivered, users may “Search in Category”, view related topics, or view cached versions of search results. An example of a search for Artificial Intelligence in law firms produces results with no advertisements, and includes the statement: “results were omitted because they were considered duplicates, banned, anomalies, errors or from the same site as other results.” The site owner Matt Wells has also added a Spell Check API to integrate a powerful query spell checker into any search engine with just one line of HTML on your search results page. More about Gigablast’s Spell Checker API.

Global Law Search Engine – Search 1,633,477 laws from 95 countries (150 data sources). Hover over a country to see the number of laws that can be searched on as of 2018-12-28. “Our service is entirely run by computer algorithms. Translations are not human-vetted. There may be inaccuracies in information due to our algorithmic extraction of information. Always consult the official source when making use of legal information. Find, compare and analyse more than 825,000 laws translated into English from 26 languages.”

Google – From a formerly crowded field a decade ago, there are now just two remaining major search engine powerhouses – Bing, and Google. Google maintained the spot as Most Popular Search Engine in 2018, with various polls tracking it with up to 74% of core search queries conducted. Users may choose to sign into one of their respective Google accounts to conduct a search, or not. Google is available in iterations for phone, tablet or laptop. Searches may be conducted by using a keyboard or key pad, or by voice command. Users may choose to use encrypted Google Search. See also the Google Advanced Search feature. The Google Help Center provides text and video assistance for all aspects of search functionality on all devices.

Google Scholar – “From one place, you can search across many disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and legal opinions and journals and patents” (NYU Libraries posted an excellent guide to Advanced Scholar search – updated in October 2017. Please note that searching university catalogs and resources and then linking to respective subscriptions materials is often to enrolled students and some time alumni.) Sources include academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, universities and other web sites (use this site for Scholar Site preference search). See also Advanced Scholar Search tips to narrow and focus your scholarly content research results, as well as trying the menu that appears on the left hand side of the main search screen (if you are signed into one of the Google apps –  Overview / Searching / Alerts / Library / Export / Coverage / Corrections / Questions / – allowing a choice of content including searching for court opinions and within certain jurisdictions.  See also Sort by date for legal search and Google Scholar library, “your personal collection of articles in Scholar. You can save articles right from the search page, organize them by topic, and use the power of Scholar’s full-text search & ranking to quickly find just the one you want – at any time and from anywhere.” See also The Lawyerist Google Scholar Research Guide. You can create a public Scholar profile. See also Finding significant citations for legal opinions.

Google News Search (use the drop-down menu that appears when you arrive at this site – far left hand side, and make use of advanced search features to obtain more focused, accurate results). Users may also choose to: search news from specific countries; and view the news results accompanied by images, annotations and social media links, or just view the headlines. Users who sign in to one of their respective Google accounts have seamless access to Google News and Google Search applications. “provides electronic copies of thousands of interesting Federal Government documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. This site provides the full text of current and historical documents, reports on items in the news” and reports that are otherwise not in the public domain without the intervention of the FOIA process. This voluminous site is the primary resource for government documents obtained via FOIA requests, and spans all agencies, subject matter, and includes historical and current documents.

Justia – Reliable, timely, comprehensive directory of primary and secondary legal resources, searchable and browsable by practice areas, topics and subject specific sources, cases in the news, legal blogs and expert commentary – Justia provides Free Daily Newsletters of Opinion Summaries for the US Supreme Court, all US Federal Appellate Courts & the 50 US State Supreme Courts and Weekly Practice Area Opinion Summaries Newsletters. Use this Link to Subscribe to free newsletters and commentary. Search – a legal search engine from ALM, owner of leading legal local and national legal publications. “Search brings legal professionals relevant results from across the network of sites and the legal web, including hundreds of hand-picked law firm websites and legal blogs.” Most of the site’s publications, national and regional, are only available to paid subscribers.

LinkedIn: “World’s Largest Professional Network” – With more than 560 million members from 200 countries and territories worldwide. The site is owned by Microsoft. The site was launched in 2003. Although portions of the site are available free, users are offered tiered pricing subscription options to access additional information about members, as well as about their connections, to share their respective information, to search for and join topical knowledge sharing groups, to seek and to provide performance recommendations, as well as to block others from connecting. The site has become a benchmark for researching colleagues and job candidates, as well as for identifying key information on organizations, companies, academe, NGOs, government agencies and market sectors. Users may post their blog and twitter feeds and open them for network comments, requests and market specialized expertise and services, and email one another via a LinkedIn email address. This a go-to site for competitive intelligence about individuals, organizations, customers, clients, and also for learning, education and knowledge management.

OAIster is a union catalog of millions of records that represent open access resources. This catalog was built through harvesting from open access collections worldwide using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). Today, OAIster includes more than 50 million records that represent digital resources from more than 2,000 contributors.”

OneLook – “Think of this web site as a search engine for words and phrases: If you have a word for which you’d like a definition, we’ll quickly shuttle you to the web-based dictionaries that define that word. If you don’t know the right word to use, we’ll help you find it. No word is too obscure: More than 19 million words in more than 1000 online dictionaries are indexed by the OneLook® search engine.”

See also OneLook Reverse Dictionary – “This tool lets you describe a concept and get back a list of words and phrases related to that concept. Your description can be anything at all: a single word, a few words, or even a whole sentence. Type in your description and hit Enter (or select a word that shows up in the autocomplete preview) to see the related words.”

Open Project MUSE – “Project MUSE offers open access (OA) books and journals from several distinguished university presses and scholarly societies. Through our open access hosting programs, we are able to offer publishers a platform for their OA content which ensures visibility, discoverability, and wide dissemination. These books and journals are freely available to libraries and users around the world.

Search Engine Colossus, International Directory of Search Engines – links to search engines from 316 countries and territories around the world –

ReportLinker [subscription] – “ReportLinker is a technology company that simplifies how analysts and decision makers get industry data for their business thanks to:

  • latest reports & slideshows with insights from top research analysts that provide full understanding of how 5,000+ industry sectors work (industry overview, key players, market drivers…)
  • 150+ Million easily actionable statistics with tables, figures & datasets (sales forecasts, market shares, production data…)
  • More than 25,000 trusted sources such as government agencies, international organizations, consultancies, industry associations…

Science Direct’s search engine. Browse 4,038 journals and 28,289 books – results can be filtered by subject. [Subscription req’d to access full text content.]

StartPage is another specialized “privacy” search engine. The company claims to permit users to conduct private searches – no tracking of your IP address, browser information and no storage of your search history to minimize intrusion by unsolicited e-commerce. Search the web, images, video. An advanced search feature is available and suggested for researchers. This site offers the user The Anonymous View Proxy. “Instead of disabling JavaScript, we use advanced, unique technology to allow almost all Javascript, while rewriting and “redefining” Javascript primitives to protect your privacy.” This is often much safer than a VPN, blocking many “browser fingerprinting” and “device fingerprinting” tracking techniques—which VPNs can’t do.”

TinEye – “Using TinEye, you can search by image or perform what we call a reverse image search. You can do that by uploading an image or searching by URL. You can also simply drag and drop your images to start your search. TinEye constantly crawls the web and adds images to its index. Today, the TinEye index is over 33.7 billion images.” See also the site’s extensions, widgets & badges.

Trademarkia (aka LegalForce Inc.) “is the largest visual search engine for more than 7 million trademarked logos, names, and slogans on the Internet. Users many also conduct European Trademark searches as well as International Trademark searches, by choosing specific countries.

TRID, the TRIS and ITRD Database – “TRID includes over 900,000 records covering transportation research from ITRD and TRIS. It includes TRB publications going back to 1923, including Highway Research Board, SHRP, and Marine Board publications. Also indexed are Environmental Impact Statements, theses, reports, and research in progress. TRID is the world’s largest and most comprehensive bibliographic resource on transportation research information, covering all modes and disciplines of transportation. Coverage: 1920s – present.”

Twitter – “As of the third quarter of 2018, the micro-blogging service averaged at 326 million monthly active users according to Statistica.” [Twitter access requires username and password]. It is a real-time information network that connects you to the latest information from around the world on a huge range of topics, people, events, products, statistics, data, photographs, commentary, politics [anything you can think of you can probably search for and find information about on Twitter] Make use of the Twitter Search engine as well as the Advanced Search page. is the official U.S. portal to federal, state, local, tribal, and international government information and services.” Use, “a comprehensive, searchable index of about 50 million pages from federal, state, local, territorial, and tribal websites… searches only federal, state, and local government websites for the public. Its search box works like other search engines you’re used to, but only returns results from government web pages, most ending in .gov or .mil. This helps you be sure you’re getting official information you can trust–and there’s no advertising.”

Wiley Online Search Library – Use the advanced search feature to locate journal articles using field specific metadata as well as specific dates. Note – access to content is linked to respective subscription agreements.

World Bank Open Data – “Free and open access to global development data.”  Browse by Country or Indicator.

WTO Data Portal portal “contains statistical indicators related to WTO issues. Available time series cover merchandise trade and trade in services statistics, market access indicators (bound, applied & preferential tariffs), non-tariff information as well as other indicators. Data retrieval functionalities include data selection, display and export, including available metadata.

Yahoo Search [Owned by Verizon Communications] – Focus your search by choosing one of the following features: web, images, video, local, shopping, apps, news, directory, blogs, finance. The site also provides a helpful Advanced Web Search feature.

YouTubeYouTube now has over 1.9 billion users every month, close but still behind Facebook’s 2 billion. YouTube has launched local versions in more than 91 countries. You can navigate YouTube in a total of 80 different languages (covering 95% of the Internet population). 80% of YouTube’s views are from outside of the U.S. YouTube is owned by Google, and users are well advised to review and use privacy settings. Users may search or browse topical categories that include: News & Politics, Nonprofits & Activism, People & Blogs, Science & Technology, Travel & Events. See also the YouTube/Google Education Channel – “We believe that every student and every educator, in every classroom, deserves the tools and skills that set them up for success in building the future they want for themselves. So we’re committed to supporting students, partnering with educators, building products and making impactful investments that help expand access to education through technology.”

Customized Topical Search Engines Developed by Academe and Professionals

Searching think tank, NGO and IGO information is an important facet of an effective search strategy. There are many organizations that comprise the “think tank” space, so it is significant that a number of search engines have been developed to focus on locating and surfacing this content.

American Policy Directory from the University of Oregon libraries, provides access to dozen of topical search engines specific to think tanks focuses on a range of issues that includes: business, civil rights, constitutional rights, consumer protection, economic rights, public finance, and women’s issues. Users may search all topics the site covers or individual topics.

Find Policy – “Find Policy is the fastest way to find policy options. We target your search to leading policy research organizations. This solves a problem: search for policy with normal Google, and you will be swamped. With Find Policy you get quality results from leading think tanks. What topic are you interested in? Development, economic or foreign policy? Public policy in general? Choose a tab to go directly to your search page. Bookmark your favorite pages for faster access. Under the More Search tab you find more think tanks from around the world (Australia, Brazil, China, to mention ABC), more thematic search (accountability/corruption, conflict, donors, and much more), and more search for think tank experts.”

Non-Governmental Organizations Search is a customized Google Search tool that was created by US and international info pros providing access to content specific to US and international NGOs.

Think Tank Search is the work of Keely Wilczek at Harvard University. “A Google Custom Search of more than 1200 think tanks and research centers. Think Tank Search searches the websites of institutions that generate public policy research, analysis, and activity. These sites are affiliated with universities, governments, advocacy groups, foundations, non-governmental organizations, and businesses. Inclusion is based upon the relevancy of subject area to HKS coursework and scholarship, the availability of the think tank’s research in full-text on the website, and the think tank’s reputation and influence upon policy making. The list represents a mixture of partisan and non-partisan think tanks.”

Subject specific content from think tanks can also be found on resources which include a significant amount of grey literature content. Two sources in the area of health care include the New York Academy of Medicine Grey Lit Report and POPLINE – POPLINE provides free full-text copies of many documents to users in low- and middle-income countries and development-supportive agencies. Whenever possible, POPLINE provides links to free full-text in its records, but if this option is not available, you can take advantage of our document delivery service using the My Basket feature.”

World Directory of Think Tanks via the National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA). The site provides a searchable database of think tanks around the world, as well as listings organized country. Most of the documents are accessible in English.

Open Source Research Archives and Portals

HathiTrust Digital Library – HathiTrust is a partnership of major research institutions and libraries working to ensure that the cultural record is preserved and accessible long into the future. The mission of HathiTrust is to contribute to research, scholarship, and the common good by collaboratively collecting, organizing, preserving, communicating, and sharing the record of human knowledge. There are more than 120 partners in HathiTrust, and membership is open to institutions worldwide. The site provides Advanced Full-text Search as well as a Search Tips FAQ. Currently Digitized statistics are as follows: 15,327,879 total volumes; 7,575,379 book titles; 421,720 serial titles; 5,364,757,650 pages; 687 terabytes; 181 miles; 12,454 tons; 5,841,949 volumes(~38% of total) in the public domain.

Internet Archive – “The Internet Archive, a 501(c)(3) non-profit, is building a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form. Like a paper library, we provide free access to researchers, historians, scholars, the print disabled, and the general public. Our mission is to provide Universal Access to All Knowledge. We began in 1996 by archiving the Internet itself, a medium that was just beginning to grow in use. Like newspapers, the content published on the web was ephemeral – but unlike newspapers, no one was saving it. Today we have 20+ years of web history accessible through the Wayback Machine and we work with 450+ library and other partners through our Archive-It program to identify important web pages. As our web archive grew, so did our commitment to providing digital versions of other published works. Today our archive contains:

PLOS / Public Library of Science – “PLOS (Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a mission of leading a transformation in scientific and medical research communication. Every article we publish is open-access – freely available online for anyone to use – which benefits everyone, from researchers, educators, and patient advocates to funders, policymakers, and the public. Sharing research encourages progress – from protecting the biodiversity of our planet to finding more effective treatments for diseases such as AIDS or cancer.”

Wayback Machine – “Explore more than 286 billion web pages saved over time. To start surfing the Wayback, type in the web address of a site or page where you would like to start, and press enter. Then select from the archived dates available. The resulting pages point to other archived pages at as close a date as possible.” This site is a critical tool for researchers as the disappearance of websites is accelerating, and with them, significant resources and knowledge are lost. As print libraries are concurrently disappearing, this site is a tremendous resource to locate information, software, images, movies, online games and a plethora of other intellectual property that is no longer actively maintained or accessible using the original source URLs. ”

Federated Search

The power and relevance of federated search is succinctly described as mining the deep web, and explained by the Department of Energy’s Office of Scientific & Technical Information: “ is a global science gateway comprised of national and international scientific databases and portals. accelerates scientific discovery and progress by providing one-stop searching of databases from around the world (Architecture: What is under the Hood). Multilingual provides real-time searching and translation of globally-dispersed multilingual scientific literature.” The WorldWideScience Alliance, a multilateral partnership, consists of participating member countries and provides the governance structure for”

See also Deep Web Research and Discovery Resources 2017, by Marcus P. Zillman – an extensive and diverse bibliography of applications, sources, services, and tools to facilitate effectively searching the deep web.

EconPapers – “Use the RePEc bibliographic and author data, providing access to the largest collection of online Economics working papers and journal articles. The majority of the full text files are freely available, but some (typically journal articles) require that you or your organization subscribe to the service providing the full text file. RePEc is a distributed data set residing in over 1100 archives operated by research organizations, academic departments and publishers.”

Catalog of U.S. Government Publications (CGP) is the finding tool for federal publications that includes descriptive records for historical and current publications and provides direct links to those that are available online. Users can search by authoring agency, title, subject, and general key word, or click on “Advanced Search” to create searches that use specific fields and keywords, date ranges, formats and that are published in languages other than English.

Google Scholar Advanced Search – “search across many disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions, from academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, universities and other web sites.”

As a subset of Google Scholar, please note the following: “A Google Scholar Universal Gadget which enables users to search for the total number of citations of author(s). It provides a total citation count, total number of cited publications and Jorge E. Hirsch’s H-Index.”

Google Scholar Metrics include journal articles from websites that follow our inclusion guidelines, selected conference articles in Computer Science & Electrical Engineering and pre-prints from arXiv, SSRN, NBER, and RePEc. As in previous releases, publications with fewer than 100 articles in the covered period, or publications that received no citations are not included.” 

MetaLib, a service of the Catalog of U.S. Government Publications is a federated search engine that searches multiple U.S. Federal government databases, retrieving reports, articles, and citations while providing direct links to selected resources available online. To learn more, view additional brief or detailed search information.

Microsoft Academic (MA) underwent a significant update in July 2017. The update includes three major features:

  • “Accounts and Profiles – You can now create an account, log in, and create a public profile by claiming the publications you have authored. Claiming your publications will help improve search accuracy, and will showcase your work to the world.
  • Personalization – Enabled by the use of accounts, personalization provides a custom homepage for each logged in user. MA catalogs academic events, research news, and new publications/citations. Based on your publication history, MA shows the most relevant items on your personalized homepage, along with news from the authors and events you choose to follow.
  • Improved search capabilities – The new version of MA goes beyond simple search. It provides recommendations and related results to help you discover more scholarship of interest.
  • This version has been available in preview for a while, and it has now become the new and only way to access MA.”

Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a world wide collaborative of over 175,000 authors and more than 1.3 million users that is devoted to the rapid worldwide dissemination of social science research. Founded in 1994, it is composed of a number of specialized research networks in each of the social sciences. Each of SSRN’s networks encourages the early distribution of research results by reviewing and distributing submitted abstracts and full text papers from scholars around the world. SSRN encourages readers to communicate directly with other subscribers and authors concerning their own and other’s research. Through our email abstracting eJournals we currently reach over 400,000 people in approximately 140 different countries. SSRN’s email abstracting eJournals cover over 1,000 different subject areas. The SSRN eLibrary consists of two parts: an Abstract Database containing abstracts on over 642,800 scholarly working papers and forthcoming papers and an Electronic Paper Collection currently containing over 348,800 downloadable full text documents in Adobe Acrobat pdf format. The eLibrary also includes the research papers of a number of Fee Based Partner Publications. To browse SSRN’s eLibrary subject area networks, click here.” SSRN´s eLibrary provides 735,258 research papers from 340,171 researchers across 30 disciplines. SSRN is now owned by Elsevier.

StartPage – Startpage BV, a Dutch inc. and has been profitable since 2004 and claims to be “the world’s most private search engine.” The company permits users to conduct private searches – with no tracking of your IP address or your browser information, and no storage of your search history to minimize intrusion by unsolicited commercial and non commercial enterprises. Search the web, images, video. An advanced feature is available and suggested. This site offers the user the proxy option wherein you are anonymous to the site you are visiting. The site will see the StartPage IP address, not the IP address from which your search originates. This option will slow your search experience but may be useful. For additional information, please see the StartPage Knowledgebase. – is an interagency product administered by USAGov (formerly the Federal Citizen Information Center), a division of the U.S. General Services Administration’s Technology Transformation Service. The is the U.S. Government’s official web portal for all government transactions, services, and information. “is a global science gateway comprised of national and international scientific databases and portals. accelerates scientific discovery and progress by providing one-stop searching of databases from around the world (Architecture: What is under the Hood). Multilingual provides real-time searching and translation of globally-dispersed multilingual scientific literature.” – “WorldCat is the world’s largest network of library content and services. WorldCat libraries are dedicated to providing access to their resources on the Web, where most people start their search for information including books, DVDs, CDs and articles. WorldCat connects you to the collections and services of more than 10,000 libraries worldwide.” Learn more ››

Zillow – “Zillow is the leading real estate and rental marketplace dedicated to empowering consumers with data, inspiration and knowledge around the place they call home, and connecting them with the best local professionals who can help. Zillow serves the full lifecycle of owning and living in a home: buying, selling, renting, financing, remodeling and more. It starts with Zillow’s living database of more than 110 million U.S. homes – including homes for sale, homes for rent and homes not currently on the market, as well as Zestimate home values, Rent Zestimates and other home-related information.”

Blog and Social Media Search

The ubiquity and power of social media is in no small measure responsible for a corresponding fall in user interest in blog specific search engines. This phenomenon correlates with the collapse of competition and choice in the web search sector –  a majority of users identify and use two dominant search services: Google and Bing. Despite the odds, free blogs on a wide range of subject matter continue to flourish, even if they are in shadow of the social/professional media quartet: Twitter, Facebook (“one of the largest websites in the world, with more than 2 billion monthly users”) LinkedIn and Instagram. Researchers should resist the temptation to abandon blogs in favor of closed, password protected, market driven ecosystems owned by the Internet behemoths. It is advisable to identify and subscribe to specific RSS feeds hosted by blogs to benefit from continuously updated, value-added, actionable subject matter focused content. Read the postings of authors whose professional, accurate, current, well-documented, knowledge you determine serves as an integral component of your specific CI/BI and research strategies. This strategy encompasses leveraging intelligence from all sectors so as not to rely upon a stream of information from only one publisher or vendor’s portfolio of products and services. Information omnivores are the norm in the CI/BI and legal research professions, with good reason. These professionals recognize the importance of engaging extensive and varied research options to build their respective tool kits to manage, maintain and deliver operational outstanding work to their clients, users, and customers.

BoardReader enables you to search message boards, websites, blogs, and other social media.

Justia Blawg Search – searchable directory of legal blog postings, continually updated. Sort results by date or relevance. Browse blogs by category, country, law school.

Social Searcher – Free Social Media Search Engine – “Our search engine allows you to monitor all public social mentions in social networks and web. Quickly measure and track what people are saying about your company, brand, product, or service in one easy to use dashboard, which would streamline your online presence tracking efforts and be a huge time saver. No more worries that important customer feedback will be missing, we’ve got you covered, just set up email alerts and be notified about new social mentions – [the site allows you to search for content in social networks in real-time and provides deep analytics data. Users can search without logging in for publicly posted information on Twitter, Google+, Facebook, Youtube, Instagram, Tumblr, Reddit, Flickr, Dailymotion and Vimeo. Free users can also save their searches and set up email alerts. Premium Social Monitoring features include: saving social mentions history, exporting data, API integration, advanced analytics, immediate email notifications.] The free component of this site offers 100 Real-time Searches / Day. See also this sites’ Google Social Search page – “Top social search networks search results dashboard.”

Twitter is ubiquitous. When this site is used with intent, focus and discipline, it is a powerful resource for news, search and value added information from U.S. and international news sources, organizations, and subject matter experits around the world (posts are limited to a maximum of 280 characters). Use the excellent, field specific Advanced Search. See also – How to Use Advanced Twitter Search and Usage FAQ. Twitter also has news search filters so users may search by individual names, photos, videos, news and broadcasts. The site also provides search operators for use in the advanced search modes. User name and password required, but access is free.

News Search and Real Time News Video

Bloomberg News [paywall] – This is one of the premier news websites available, with real time updates that maintains a subject matter focus on the economy, finance, markets, business, technology, science and trending news (via a ticker) throughout the world. Users of the Bloomberg Terminal have access to news faster and with more comprehensive data, but this site is exemplary in its delivery of high quality analysis, data and news. Users may specify their country to focus search results. The sites includes live news broadcasts with audio. “A Bloomberg Digital subscription provides unlimited access to Bloomberg News content across any computer or device. This includes all articles, audio versions of articles, videos, podcasts and live streaming of Bloomberg Television. A Digital subscription gets you full access to content on, Bloomberg’s flagship mobile and tablet apps, and in Apple News and Google Play Newsstand. As a subscriber, you also receive special, subscriber-only newsletters, The Bloomberg Open and The Bloomberg Close, curated by our global editors and access to special content.”

Financial Times [paywall] “is one of the world’s leading news organisations, recognised internationally for its authority, integrity and accuracy. It is part of Nikkei Inc., which provides a broad range of information, news and services for the global business community.” (free email updates with fee based subscription to global online content) –

Google News – In juxtaposition to the Bloomberg News presentation of data, images and visual content driven design, Google News is text driven, using multiple side bars and drop down menus to choose search options – by country, subject matter, content type, and breaking news from around the world.  News is provided in text and video formats, identified by source and also includes time stamps. Search, browse and share news, updated continuously. Users may customize/personalize the news page view according to: country/locale; topics, frequency for delivery of updates, opt-in for email and or RSS news feed alerts delivered to computer or mobile devices. See also the Google News Help page.

Google Newspaper Archive – this project was abandoned but can still be used to access a repository of U.S. and international newspapers from time periods that range according to each specific title – from one or two year coverage to several decades of coverage). Users may browse by alphabetical title, or search for titles.

Justia Legal News – each story is associated with subjects and tags to enhance location of related articles.

NewsNow “is the UK’s first and leading home-grown and independent news aggregation service. Fully-automated, and on a continuous basis, NewsNow displays breaking headlines linking to news websites all around the world. NewsNow links to tens of thousands of publications, from top news brands to alternative news sources — all on a single platform. We operate thanks to our unique filing engine, which matches breaking news articles in real time against our thousands of carefully crafted keyword-based topic specifications — delivering relevant links to users, and relevant readers to publishers, in seconds. Our website, which is among the UK’s top news destinations, is generally visited by over 14M unique monthly visitors and receives in excess of 120 million page views per month.” – “List of the most important online newspapers and other news sources in all countries in the world. All the newspapers focus on general news, politics, debate and economy and they are free to access online. The newspapers are chosen in order to give journalists, researcher and others an overview of how the national media edit current topics. Choose country to see the newspapers.”

Reuters Business & Financial News (part of ThomsonReuters) – The site hosts 17 editions and languages. Users may search quotes, news, video, photos, and podcasts. Users may choose from among dozens of RSS feeds to subscribe.

Reuters – “Reuters is the news and media division of Thomson Reuters. Thomson Reuters is the world’s largest international multimedia news agency, providing investing news, world news, business news, technology news, headline news, small business news, news alerts, personal finance, stock market, and mutual funds information available on, video, mobile, and interactive television platforms.” User may also subscribe to the site’s Feeds | Newsletters | Podcasts | Apps.

Yahoo News Search [owned by Verizon Communications] – News | Politics | Sports | Finance | Entertainment | Tech |.  See also Yahoo Advanced Web Search to focus search terms, date range, file format, country, language and result requirements.

Creative Commons Search – “This search helps you find content published by authors who want you to share or reuse it, under certain conditions.” See also the new Creative Commons beta search – “Use this prototype to find images that you can use and remix across several open archives.” [paywall] – The majority of the Wall Street Journal online site is behind a paywall. Selected stories are accessible with no fee. In addition, the publishes News & Commentary, Blogs, Video and Podcasts via RSS feeds.

News Search, Articles and Alerts

Google Alerts – updates from Web, news, blogs, real time, videos, discussions – (frequency: as-it-happens, daily or weekly), via keyword searches created by the user. Use this FAQ to learn how to create, edit and delete your alerts. –

FindLaw newsletters – “…free online legal information, publishes over 40 email newsletters for consumers, business owners, and legal professionals. Whether you want the latest breaking legal document, a weekly update on the most recent cases from a particular court, or your daily legal news fix.” All of’s newsletters are free, and available in HTML and plain text formats – – “published by Dow Jones & Co., tracks the pulse of markets for engaged investors with more than 16 million visitors per month. The site is a leading innovator in business news, personal finance information, real-time commentary and investment tools and data, with dedicated journalists generating hundreds of headlines, stories, videos and market briefs a day from bureaus in the U.S., Europe and Asia. In addition, MarketWatch offers subscription products for investors, including Retirement Weekly and ETF Trader. MarketWatch is part of Dow Jones Media Group, which includes, Financial News London, Moneyish and Mansion Global.”

Mondaq – “We are a growing independent company with a great global reach. For the past 20 years we have been creating one of the world’s most comprehensive online resources of professionals’ expertise and knowledge. Mondaq includes legal, financial and regulatory information from over 70 countries – and because we’re really nice folks, we provide it to readers absolutely free.”

Selected Business Info Websites and Databases – Fee and Free

Fee Based Sites and Databases

ETS: Best Free Reference Web Sites Combined Index, 1999-2016 – “This is an index of the web sites included in the 1999-2016 annual lists issued by the MARS Best Free Reference Web Sites Committee of the MARS: Emerging Technologies in Reference Section of the Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) of ALA to recognize outstanding reference sites on the World Wide Web.”

Data-Planet Statistical Datasets – “provides easy access to an extensive repository of standardized and structured statistical data. The Data Planet repository contains more than 52 billion data points from more than 75 source organizations. The over 6.2 billion datasets in Data Planet provide immediate access to data presented in charts, maps, graphs, and table form, via multiple points of entry. With the ability to instantly chart, map, and compare billions of indicators at the county, MSA, census-tract, state, and country level, Data Planet is revolutionizing statistical research. The repository continues to grow with new content and sources selected purposefully to best meet the needs of customers.”

LexisNexis Accurint – subscription req’d – “A direct connection to over 65 billion current public records. Detect fraud. Verify identities. Conduct investigations.”

Standard & Poor’s, subscription req’d – “S&P Dow Jones Indices is the world’s largest, global resource for index-based concepts, data and research. Home to iconic financial market indicators, such as the S&P 500 and the Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P Dow Jones Indices has over 120 years of experience constructing innovative and transparent solutions that fulfill the needs of institutional and retail investors.”

ViewsWire – “We are the research and analysis division of The Economist Group, the sister company to The Economist newspaper. Created in 1946, we have nearly 70 years’ experience in helping businesses, financial firms and governments to understand how the world is changing and how that creates opportunities to be seized and risks to be managed. A British company, we are intensely global. We service clients across the world from our 24 offices, our staff speak over 25 languages and we embrace foreign cultures with a passion,

Free Sites – some with registration and/or fee components

AFL-CIO Executive PayWatch – “In 2017, CEOs of S&P 500 Index companies received, on average, $13.94 million in total compensation, according to the AFL-CIO’s analysis of available data. America’s production and nonsupervisory workers earned only $38,613, on average, in 2017—a CEO-to-worker pay ratio of 361 to 1.”

Business Wire – “For more than 50 years, Business Wire has been the global leader in press release distribution and regulatory disclosure.”

CORI Contracts Database – “CORI’s K-Base library contains over 690,000 contracts. Most of the contracts in the collection are executed agreements made available in public disclosure filings or in filings with a regulatory agency. Currently, the collection is primarily drawn from filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s (SEC’s) EDGAR Database. The required disclosure filings made by publicly traded companies frequently contain contracts that are of material interest to investors. CORI has downloaded, extracted, and categorized these contract filings to make them more directly available. The collection of contracts is dated at this point and we are not currently updating with new material. We are exploring opportunities both to expand the collection and to modernize the interface to be more efficient and user-friendly, as resources become available. In addition to the primary collection, special collections that were previously available only in hardcopy are now available in the v1.1 CORI Digital Library Collection. These collections includes HMO-Physician agreements, sports stadium leases, container shipping contracts, and more, and is full-text searchable.”

EDGAR Full-Text Search – “This page allows you to search the full text of EDGAR filings from the last four years. The full text of a filing includes all data in the filing as well as all attachments to the filing.” – from the Economist intelligence unit – subscription or pay as you go options available: “The EIU publishes a number of reports each year focussing on current issues affecting specific countries, regions and industries. These reports are available at no cost and help business leaders prepare for opportunity…”

Europages – “EUROPAGES is a European B2B platform in 26 languages, with 3 million registered companies, mainly manufacturers, service providers, wholesalers and distributors. Every month more than 2 million unique visitors from all over the world use the platform to search for products, services and suppliers.”

“The European Patent Register – “Welcome to the European Patent Register, the place to find procedural and legal status data on patent applications handled by the European Patent Office. If this is the first time you are consulting the EP Register, please have a look at the introductory video .Estonia joins the Federated Register. The Federated Register has started retrieving official bibliographic and legal status information from the Estonian Register and displaying it in the European Patent Register. At present, the countries participating in the Federated Register project are: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom. Click here for more information on the Federated Register.”

Fortune – The site posts rankings such as: 40 Under 40; 100 Best Companies to Work For; Fortune 500; Global 500; Most Powerful Women in Business; World’s 50 Greatest Leaders; World’s Most Admired Companies; Brainstorm Reinvent. On a daily basis Fortune publishes articles on a wide range of subjects including: energy, finance, technology, markets, automotive industry, international, careers, and healthcare. This site offers some free access as well as subscription based access to the online version of the monthly magazine. The site also publishes commentary and alerts for opt-in subscribers.

Fortune 500 visualization – “Why care about the Fortune 500? Easy: You may be looking for a new job. You might be searching for a sales lead. You could be conducting corporate research or gathering investor information. Or you just might want the bragging rights associated with being one of the top companies in the country. Below are two visualizations that allow you to explore the Fortune 500 visually. With the map, you can find the U.S. headquarters for each company on the list. On the line chart, you can see how each company has moved through the ranks over the last two decades.”

Forbes Lists – “Each year Forbes ranks the world based on a variety categories ranging from the wealthiest people on the planet to the best colleges America has to offer.”

Google Finance – continuously updated news, analysis and data available via links on the homepage – market summary, recent quotes, today’s news, sector summary, today’s movers, domestic trends –

Kyckr Online Company Search [subscription req’d] – “Online Company Search – Download official up to date company reports, annual accounts, company profiles, company director details all from Companies House Official Databases. With access to over 150 Corporate Registries worldwide and growing. Our search portal allows searching by company name or company number for Registered Companies and Company Director Information.” – Dow Jones [free and fee based] Updated throughtout the day – stock market quotes; news on business, financial and personal investment, economy and politics. The site also offers opt-in email updates and alerts and 12 topics. – subscription req’d, credit ratings, research and risk analysis. Press releases and abstracts of commebtary are available free. –

Reuters Financials – continuously updated headlines, company information, analyst research, industry watch, stocks. Some data requires registration –

SEC Info – registration req’d – data from the SEC EDGAR database. Search by Name, Industry, Business, SIC Code, Area Code, Topic, CIK, Accession Number, File Number, Date, ZIP.  “The most-sophisticated U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) EDGAR® database service on the Web, with billions of links added to Filings, Documents & Exhibits to enable easier navigation” –

Time Business – news, commentary and views on the economy, markets and business – – Find Suppliers and Source Products – 500,000+ suppliers, 6 million products, 10 million CAD drawings, 120+ years of serving industry –

Best-Performing Cities – “Metropolitan areas are crucial drivers of growth in the American economy, taking different paths to prosperity depending on their industry mix, policy choices, and available resources. But while some parts of the country are thriving, others are falling behind. The Milken Institute’s Best-Performing Cities (BPC) index provides an objective benchmark for examining the underlying factors and identifying unique characteristics of economic growth in metropolitan areas. Our index uses a fact-based set of metrics such as job creation, wage gains, and technology developments to evaluate the relative growth of metropolitan areas. While national and international political and economic forces can affect near-term performance and can lie beyond a region’s control, the top-performing metros have cohesive strategies that allow them to leverage their assets more effectively. They offer important lessons that may be helpful to peer regions.”

United States Patent Office – USPTO Patent Full-Text and Image Database – See also the FAQ on how to search this database.

Who Owns What in MediaColumbia Journalism Review’s guide to what the major media companies own. –

World Industrial Reporter – “The World Industrial Reporter website brings you the latest developments in industrial innovation. These insights can help keep your business competitive in today’s global marketplace. Industrial innovation covers product introductions, new materials & technologies, plant openings, enhanced manufacturing processes, and much more. These difficult-to-find articles are brought together in one, convenient place, so you can quickly assess their impact on your business. Additional content on the World Industrial Reporter website will keep you informed on the latest trends in global markets, logistics, industrial tradeshows, and supplier sourcing.”

Yahoo Finance – Aggregates news updates from major financial sources including: AP, CNBC, Zacks, Bloomberg, Business Insider, Reuters, MarketWatch, TheStreet.

Selected Historical Corporate Sector Data Sources

Harvard – Historic Corporate Reports – “Special Collections holds an extensive collection of corporate reports representing over 27,000 companies. This is one of the largest collections of corporate reports in the world, and includes annual reports, prospectuses, proxies, registration statements, and miscellaneous items such as brokerage-house reports, charts, and unpublished corporate histories. These holdings outline the trajectory of U.S. and international companies dating from 1820 to the present.”

Selected Corporate Annual Reports Available at the Library of Congress. “Corporate annual reports are an important research tool, providing a window into how a company presents itself to its investors and the public and explains its corporate performance at a particular point in time. They allow the researcher to analyze a company’s performance in light of its corporate strategies and to compare its performance to that of its competition. Reporting requirements vary by country but such reports typically contain information on financial highlights; balance sheets; profit and loss statements; new business; projections; outstanding shares of stock and information on Board Members. The sources listed may be useful in identifying corporate annual reports available for use at the Library of Congress.”

DealBook by the New York Times – Topics include: Mergers & Acquisitions, Venture Capital, Private Equity, Hedge Funds, IPO Offerings, Venture Capital, Legal/Regulatory –

footnoted* “is a highly acclaimed information service that uses proprietary search techniques to find both hidden opportunities and early signs of potential problems buried deep in routine SEC filings.Led by author, reporter, and SEC filings expert Michelle Leder, footnoted* focuses on the actionable details that really matter in the hundreds of thousands of pages that are filed with the SEC day in and day out. Leder and her team of analysts then start to build a mosaic based on multiple filings to provide insight that is typically three to six months ahead of the market. Subscribers to footnoted* can customize their portfolio to receive updates on tickers in their portfolio or receive all alerts. We also offer a special “Friday Night Dump” email alert that focuses on filings made after the market closes on Friday afternoons.

Real Time Economics – “Exclusive news, analysis and commentary on the U.S. and global economy, central bank policy and economics” from the Wall Street Journal (fee).

Seeking Alpha – “We are an industry leader in mining the wisdom of the crowds for insights on every topic of interest to investors. Our editors curate content from a network of stock analysts, traders, economists, academics, financial advisors and industry experts — all who engage in our community. 13.3 million+ visitors come to us not only to consume content, but to contribute and to participate in the conversation. The depth and breadth of our content is unmatched, with 8,700+ tickers covered and 8,200+ articles and earnings transcripts published every month, driving industry-leading engagement. Our content includes curated news, research, opinion and discussion from our editorial team of 53 in addition to 16,000+ individual and corporate contributors.”

Selected Online People and Company Location Sources

Accurint (owned by LexisNexis – subscription only) provides access to millions of data records on individuals and businesses – – “genealogy, family trees and family history records online,” fee req’d – – “FamilySearch is the largest genealogy organization in the world. For over 100 years, FamilySearch has been actively gathering, preserving, and sharing genealogical records worldwide. Patrons may freely access our resources and service online at, or through over 4,500 family history centers in 70 countries, including the renowned Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah.” Users may search and view some data free, but fees do apply for many records.

FindLaw Search for a Lawyer or for a Law Firm

Forbes – The Forbes Lists and Rankings include significant information on individuals, companies, and a wide spectrum of business, sports, entertainment and employment sectors in the U.S. and around the world.

Google – Search: the web, images, news, videos, maps, travel, food, transportation, art, healthcare and more.

Infobel – “Kapitol is the publisher of Infobel products specializing in B2B and online services. With a global digital platform, Kapitol-Infobel publishes and continually updates a database of some 350 million telephone subscribers and 186 million businesses worldwide. Operating throughout the world, Kapitol-Infobel also offers numerous B2B solutions including a large range of products and services that allows customers to get or improve, use data for the purposes of publication, marketing, advertising, and other data purpose. Established in 1995, Kapitol is the first business worldwide to have developed and published an online telephone directory.”

Justia Lawyer Directory – Find Attorneys, Law Firms, Legal Aid and Legal Services around the country. – – “Martindale-Hubbell offers a full suite of online products and services that help lawyers enhance their online presence and drive more prospects to their firm. Lawyers showcase their credentials and win new business with:

Pipl People Search – “The most comprehensive people search on the web (with more than 3 billion listings and growing each day).”

Search Systems – “…your guide to Free Public Records. We’re a family-owned business established in 1990 that has worked since 1996 to take the guesswork out of finding public record information online.We’ve personally located, analyzed, described, and organized links to over 70,000 databases by type and location to help you find property, criminal, court, birth, death,marriage, divorce records, licenses, deeds, mortgages, corporate records, business registration, and many other public record resources quickly, easily, and for free.”

Zaba Search – Free People Search and Public Information Search Engine.

Television and Radio News Transcripts – including streaming audio/video [Fee and Free] Live – 24-hour business and financial news via Bloomberg. Free and Fee. Includes video, live radio programs and featured podcasts. Topics include: Markets, Tech, Politics, Opinion, Businessweek. – Along with breaking news headlines and stories, the site links to investigative shows and news programs, as well as video, on a range of topics including: politics, healthcare, the economy, education, technology – national and international stories are profiled.

Critical Mention – “Critical Mention captures and indexes 40 hours of broadcast content every 60 seconds from more than 2,000 unique broadcast sources producing a robust database of more than 16 million searchable segments, all available in broadcast quality definition and in real-time.” Subscription only.

Google Video search See also YouTube –, owned by Google.

Yahoo! Video Search – “Yahoo! Video allows you to search millions of videos from across the Web.”

ShadowTV – “ShadowTV is the fastest, easiest-to-use media monitoring service. We provide access to all the news coverage you need: TV, Internet, Print and Radio. From Wall Street to the White House, Madison Avenue to Hollywood, ShadowTV is used to monitor news for competitive intelligence, shareholder relations, brand management and media crisis strategy. Corporate communications directors, publicists, broadcast executives and feature film producers, print and network news writers and researchers, entertainment and political figures all rely on ShadowTV’s reports and alerts.” Subscription Only. –

TVEyes – The Search Engine for Broadcast – “Founded in 1999, TVEyes’s mission is to be the global search engine for TV and radio coverage. No matter where it appears in the world, if it aired on TV, you’ll find it on TVEyes. The TVEyes Content Intelligence Platform combines human supervision, artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques to analyze broadcast and online video. By combining language-specific automated speech recognition, image recognition, and industry-leading video search technology, TVEyes turns unstructured audio/video content into highly structured, actionable intelligence. The TVEyes Content Intelligence Platform can be utilized to:

  • identify and report on logo and product placement appearances in broadcast and online video
  • track placement of advertising in broadcast media
  • create custom applications utilizing object recognition from any video feed..” Subscription Only.

Tyndall Report Year in Review – “The Tyndall Report monitors the weekday nightly newscasts of the three American broadcast television networks: ABC World News with David Muir (formerly Charles Gibson and subsequently Diane Sawyer), CBS Evening News with Scott Pelley (formerly Katie Couric) and NBC Nightly News with Lester Holt (formerly Brian Williams). Each day, Andrew Tyndall blogs the three newscasts. He has been monitoring television news for 20 years. He claims to be the only person on the planet who has personally watched every single weekday network nightly newscast since the summer of 1987. Other people go on vacation: he records them all and logs the news he missed into his database when he returns.”

Federal News Service – “Fast, accurate verbatim transcripts for political events in Washington that affect you. Targeted content delivered within hours of the event through our Transcript Database or individually through our online store.” Subscription only.

Vanderbilt Television News Archive – “The mission of the Vanderbilt Television News Archive focuses on creating, preserving and providing access to the news broadcasts from the U.S. national television networks. We create recordings of news broadcasts from the U.S. national television networks, preserve the content for future generations, and provide the widest access possible within the copyright limitations. We have been recording these broadcasts since August 5, 1968. The core of our collection consists of regularly scheduled newscasts from ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN and Fox News. We also record other news content as it happens beyond these newscasts, including material from other networks.”

YouTube [owned by Google] – “Founded in February 2005, YouTube allows billions of people to discover, watch and share originally-created videos. YouTube provides a forum for people to connect, inform, and inspire others across the globe and acts as a distribution platform for original content creators and advertisers large and small.”

Legislative Monitoring and Tracking

CQ Roll Call (Subscription Req’d) – is part of FiscalGroup) – Congressional news, insights, analysis, legislative tracking, members and votes, advocacy tools. Legislative tracking and monitoring service offers users the ability to create customized delivery of services, including time sensitive alerts and updates, via website, email updates, and RSS. Bill tracking and monitoring, daily links to HotDocs, full-text CRS reports.

C-SPAN – “C-SPAN is a private, non-profit public service of the cable television industry that covers the political process. C-SPAN receives no funding from any government. C-SPAN’s operating revenues come from license fees paid by cable systems and satellite companies that offer the network to their customers…C-SPAN provides access to the live gavel-to-gavel proceedings of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate, and to other forums where public policy is discussed, debated and decided–all without editing, commentary or analysis and with a balanced presentation of points of view.” C-SPAN provides video, TV, radio and text based content. Video files are searchable.

FEDNET “is a credentialed news organization and the leading provider of Multimedia broadcast of the United States Congress. FedNet maintains a robust video network throughout the Capitol complex for use in broadcast and web-based production. FedNet began broadcasting Congress on the web in 1996 and since that time has broadcast over 5,000 live hearings, thousands of live press conferences and complete, gavel-to-gavel, live coverage of the Senate and House Floor Debates each day.” Subscription only. – “ [owned by CQRollCall] is a non-partisan website dedicated to building a knowledge base for professionals wishing to better engage their communities. Highlighting the latest trends, success stories, effective or creative implementations and more, professionals from a whole host of backgrounds, whether in marketing, government affairs, communications or otherwise, can share their knowledge and gain insight from the larger advocacy community. embraces that advocacy has evolved – a letter writing campaign should no longer be considered an organization’s only option for effective legislator outreach. We look to help readers lead within the new paradigm, one that recognizes that consistent stakeholder education and involvement will lead to better results. Positioning your group as the trust worthy thought leader in the arena will only help as your issues evolve today and into the future.” – “ helps you keep tabs on the U.S. Congress. This site is not affiliated with the U.S. government; it is non-commercial, non-partisan, and an open source project. is a project of Civic Impulse, LLC, a completely independent entity which is wholly owned by its operator and receives no funding in any form from outside organizations. We have no financers, sponsors, investors, or partners, nor do we have any affiliation or relationship (financial or otherwise) with any political party, government agency, or any other outside group or persons. We pay our operating costs through our advertising revenue (read our ad policy) and crowdfunding (support us on Patreon; see our 2015 project on Kickstarter). We’re a small organization with four part-time staff members. Joshua Tauberer, who started GovTrack as a hobby in 2004, is the organization’s founder and president.”

Roll Call – Graphics and photos drive this iteration of a print news journal, with continuously updated news (free and fee access) to daily online articles on policy, politics, including opinion/analysis (partisan), videos, podcasts and alerts –

The – Continuously updated news and views (partisan) on legislation, legislators, politics, policy and the White House. The site hosts 6 topical blogs as well as alerts, podcasts, video and of course a Twitter feed. – From the Library of Congress, legislative information, status of legislation, links to committee reports.

E-Newsletters, Online Newspapers, Journals and News Sources

Biz Journals – (Subscription required – some content is free) “American City Business Journals (ACBJ) is the largest publisher of metropolitan business newsweeklies in the United States, with 43 business publications across the country reaching more than 3.6 million readers each week. We also offer specialty publications for sports fans, sports business readers and classic car enthusiasts.”

Bloomberg – This is one of the premier news websites available, with real time updates that maintain a subject matter focus on the economy, finance, markets, business, technology, science and trending news (via a ticker) throughout the world. Users of the Bloomberg Terminal have access to news faster and with more comprehensive data, but the free components of this site are exemplary in the delivery of high quality analysis, data and news. Users may specify their country to focus search results. The sites includes live live news broadcasts with audio.

CNNBusiness – Topical articles on business, tech, market, media, personal investment.

Financial Times – free and fee; email updates and RSS feeds available to subscribers. Daily blog updates, video and podcasts. Comprehensive coverage of global markets, politics, the economy, Fintech.

Forbes – video network, features, blogs, columns, special reports – Europe, US and Asia. Search people, companies, lists. Content is organized into subject matter: Billionaires; Innovation; Leadership; Money; Consumer; Industry; Lifestyle. See also the Forbes Search feature.

Fortune – “Fortune is a global media organization dedicated to helping its readers, viewers, and attendees succeed big in business through unrivaled access and best-in-class storytelling” – feature articles, video, RSS, newsletters. See also Fortune Newsletters – “Stay on top of the ever-changing world of business. Our newsletters are filled with timely news, insights and analysis, and are easy to read on any device. Sign up now to receive FORTUNE’s best content.” [business, corporate, technology, health care].

Google Finance – Market Summary, Today’s Headlines, Company Facts and Financials, Related company data, a Company Summary, Management info, blog posts and links to topical discussions. Includes Advanced Search Feature.

Investors Business Daily – “Our Mission is to Help You Make More Money in the Stock Market – some free content, mostly fee based.

The Deal, subscription req’d. “The Deal is an intelligence service that provides actionable information on deals and dealmakers, offering over 100,000 users the unique opportunity to identify potential deals and target dealmakers to accelerate revenue generation.”

Time Business – News and views on the economy, markets and business –

Wall Street Journal registered subscribers may opt-in for email updates, RSS, customized homepage, company and industry news trackers. Each day some articles are available free to readers without a subscription. All WSJ blogs, updated daily, provide reliable news and analysis with links to primary documents, and all are free via There are also corresponding Twitter and RSS feeds.

Yahoo! Finance – market summaries, currencies, videos, quotes, rates, news features, opinions.

Monitoring Trends, Companies and Products – Selected News Aggregators, RSS Feeds, Blog Search Engines

News Aggregators

BBC News Feeds – popular BBC news feeds, global and UK news feeds, video and audio feeds – services for mobile, connected TV, alerts, e-mail news.

Financial Times – RSS and Twitter feeds –

MarketWatch – “MarketWatch is providing some of its popular feeds in RSS format for personal, non-commercial use by individuals only. The feeds are free of charge for use by individuals, as long as the feeds are used for such individual’s personal, non-commercial use. Attribution to MarketWatch, which is included in each feed, is required.”

New York Times Times Topics feeds [archived] collected news, reference, photos, graphics, audio and video on thousands of subjects, covering material published since 1981.” –

PR Newswire – Access releases, photos, ProfNet experts and customized feeds just for the media.

Reuters News RSS Feeds – “We invite you to use Reuters RSS feeds to add Reuters definitive news and video headlines to your feed reader or blog, free of charge, for individual, non-commercial use.”

Wall Street Journal Digital Network RSS Feeds – (free)

Washington Post RSS Feeds – The RSS feeds on several dozen national and international topics are provided free to readers.

Yahoo! News – Latest News & Headlines

Identification of Company Legal Representation

ALM’s surveys, rankings and data are an essential resource for knowledge managers, firm leadership and anyone seeking to better understand the legal market, the firms that comprise it, and the issues and challenges endemic to Surveys and Rankings – subscription req’d.

Corporate Counsel subscription req’d (ALM) – “A rich selection of articles curated by ALM’s expert editorial team from across ALM’s national and regional publications, featuring leading voices in the legal field. is the premiere source for trusted and timely legal news and analysis. Subscribers to the site can access stories from across ALM’s national and regional publications, with the opportunity to view news by practice area. Each practice area offers a rich selection of articles, curated by ALM’s expert editorial team. In addition, features views from leading voices in the legal field through the Contributor Network.”

LexisNexis CourtLink subscription req’d – “Harness data from millions of dockets. On-demand court records, tracking and alerts, new civil records, criminal records, federal and state. Satisfyingly simple court case searches fill you in on all the players too” – (fee)

Comprehensive, annotated, up-to-date case law for state and federal jurisdictions, as well a hundreds of current and archival databases on law, government documents, news, and journals via Lexis or ThomsonReutersWestlaw

Verdict Search [fee based] – 200,000+ Cases | National & State Coverage | Updated Daily | Plaintiff & Defense Case-Winning Information

Note: Law firm websites are a major source of strategic corporate intelligence – firm, practice, and client specific biographies, press releases, news alerts, topical blogs – be sure to track and monitor information from within this range of publications after you identify specific value added content. – Search for lawyers, law firms and organizations, groups and topics, jobs. Results provide name, law firm, job title, link to website with bio and contact info is provided in many instances, city/state/county, telephone number.

Pacer – “Public Access to Court Electronic Records (PACER) is an electronic public access service that allows users to obtain case and docket information online from federal appellate, district, and bankruptcy courts, and the PACER Case Locator. PACER is provided by the Federal Judiciary in keeping with its commitment to providing public access to court information via a centralized service.” Requires username and password – fees apply –

Patent records, USPTO –

Secretary of State and Other Business Filings Databases, published by – “All 50 states make some level of corporate and business filings available online. In a few instances only limited information (such as name availability) is retrievable. The majority of the states, however, use their Web presence to disseminate a range of public business records — and many offer access at no charge.” – “Search by Name, Industry, Business, SIC Code, Area Code, Topic, CIK, Accession Number, File Number, Date, ZIP.”

Trademark Electronic Search System, USPTO –, fee –

America’s Corporate Finance Directory – also useful for identification of other outside service providers, including auditor, banker, pension manager, insurance carriers, investment banker, etc.

Thomson Reuters Westlaw CourtExpress – dockets and document retrieval services for state and federal jurisdictions,

Selected Online Tools for Competitor Monitoring

Website Trackers

“Domain Tools has been tracking the whois history of millions of domains since 2000. Domain History gives you access to our massive database of historical whois records. Supported TLDs are .com, .net, .org, .biz, .us, and .info. DomainTools offers an historical lookup of registrations back to 2001.”

InfoMinder – subscription service to track and monitor changes to websites, blogs, RSS feeds and wikis –

MarkMonitor – (fee) “Protecting brands in the digital world”

VisualPing – “We offer free bulk upload from a list of sites to track, volume discounts for more than 10,000 checks a month and corporate packages for more than 5 users. Enterprise users also benefit from customer on-boarding, training and support. We also offer access to our public API and custom development work.” Other pro-tools available are Slack, Hipchat, Webhook, RSS and text message notifications, false alarm reduction tools like the double check feature, the ability to track visual or HTML changes, being notified when keywords are added or deleted, superpose and cache (in website context) compare, click before checking, complete fields for password-protected sites and more.

WebSite Watcher – (fee) monitor websites for updates and changes –

Web2Mail Lite – read, receive and browse the web by email –

Westlaw and LexisNexis

Benchmarking – Law, Corporate, Government, Market Data

American Bar Association (ABA) Statistics on the Legal Profession

American Lawyer – subscription (law firm and lawyer surveys, reports, articles, market data) – Small Business – “The U.S. Commercial Service is the trade promotion unit of the International Trade Administration. U.S. Commercial Service trade specialists in 107 U.S. cities and in more than 80 countries work with your company to help you get started in exporting or increase your sales to new global markets.”

Canadian Business – News, Growth 500, Best Managed Companies, MBA Guide.

Chambers and Partners (fee and free) – “Searchable database of the top lawyers in 175 countries, providing independent rankings and editorial commentary” Researching Outstanding Lawyers Globally – Definitive client insights from over 200 research analysts- (LexisNexis – subscription only)

FRASER (Federal Reserve Archival System for Economic Research) – “Through partnership with the St. Louis Fed’s “Econ Ed” (Economic Education) team, FRASER now offers an easy-to-navigate menu of resources for anyone who wants to learn more about economics, history, or finance—and the teachers, professors, and librarians who help them learn. The new Teaching and Learning with FRASER® collection is only a click away via the Education tab above. Although originally a simple index of curriculum resources related to FRASER themes, it is now a jumping-off point for teaching, research, and education. Teaching and Learning with FRASER now functions like the rest of FRASER, with full-text documents readable on the page or downloadable for access later. Unlike our more traditional collections on FRASER, however, the Teaching and Learning collection allows you to browse documents by their intended use, not just by title or author.”

Fortune 500 annual ranking of America’s largest corporations – use the drop down menu to access archival data from 1955 to present –

“The IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook (WCY) “is the world’s most renowned and comprehensive annual report on the competitiveness of nations, ranking and analyzing how a nation’s environment creates and sustains the competitiveness of enterprises…it measures 57 countries on the basis of 329 criteria.”

Economic Indicators – “Available from April 1995 forward, this monthly publication is prepared by the Council of Economic Advisers for the Joint Economic Committee. It provides economic information on gross domestic product, income, employment, production, business activity, prices, money, credit, security markets, Federal finance, and international statistics. Economic Indicators back to 1948 are made available through FRASER, the Federal Reserve Archival System for Economic Research. FRASER is provided through a partnership between GPO and the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. FRASER is not an official version of Economic Indicators and GPO can not guarantee the authenticity or completeness of the data. About Economic Indicators.

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis – “The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis is your source of accurate and objective data about the nation’s economy. What We Do – BEA’s economists produce some of the world’s most closely watched statistics, including U.S. gross domestic product, better known as GDP. We do state and local numbers, too, plus foreign trade and investment stats and industry data.

Country Profiles

BBC News Country Profiles – “Full profiles provide an instant guide to history, politics and economic background of countries and territories, and background on key institutions. They also include audio and video clips from BBC archives. Select a country, territory or international organisation from the menus below.”

CIA World Factbook “The World Factbook provides information on the history, people, government, economy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues for 267 world entities. Our Reference tab includes: maps of the major world regions, as well as Flags of the World, a Physical Map of the World, a Political Map of the World, a World Oceans map, and a Standard Time Zones of the World map..” – Topics Index with short abstracts – “News, country profiles, forecasts, statistics” on more than 80 countries.

Doing Business – Measuring Business Regulation – World Bank Group: “The Doing Business project provides objective measures of business regulations for local firms in 190 economies and selected cities at the subnational level.”

Index Mundi – “IndexMundi contains detailed country statistics, charts, and maps compiled from multiple sources. You can explore and analyze thousands of indicators organized by region, country, topic, industry sector, and type.”

Library of Congress Country Studies – “This series of profiles of foreign nations is part of the Country Studies Program…The profiles offer brief, summarized information on a country’s historical background, geography, society, economy, transportation and telecommunications, government and politics, and national security.”

World Bank’s Open Data – “The World Bank’s Open Data initiative is intended to provide all users with access to World Bank data, according to the Open Data Terms of Use. The data catalog is a listing of available World Bank datasets, including databases, pre-formatted tables, reports, and other resources.

World Competitiveness Center – “We are dedicated to the advancement of knowledge on world competitiveness by offering benchmarking services for countries and companies using the latest and most relevant data on the subject.”

IGO and NGO Portals

International Organizations, United States Institute of Peace – Listed alphabetically by name –

NGO Research Guide, Duke University Libraries – “The selection of NGOs listed here primarily reflects the research interests of Duke researchers and students and is not comprehensive or representative of the universe of NGOs throughout the United States or the world.” –

Think Tank Search – Harvard University – “Think Tank Search is a custom Google search of over 1200 think tank websites. For the purposes of this search, think tanks are defined as institutions affiliated with universities, governments, advocacy groups, foundations, non-governmental organizations, and businesses that generate public policy research, analysis, and activity. Inclusion is based upon the relevancy of subject area to HKS coursework and scholarship, the availability of the think tank’s research in full-text on the website, and the think tank’s reputation and influence upon policy making. The list represents a mixture of partisan and non-partisan think tanks.”

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library

Worldwide NGO Directory – “The World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations (WANGO) is an international organization uniting NGOs worldwide in the cause of advancing peace and global well being. WANGO helps to provide the mechanism and support needed for NGOs to connect, partner, share, inspire, and multiply their contributions to solve humanity’s basic problems. Initiated in 2000 by a handful of international NGOs and prominent visionaries, WANGO has quickly become one of the premier international bodies for non-governmental organizations that are committed to the ideals of universal peace, justice, and well being for all humanity. Concerned with universal values shared across the barriers of politics, culture, religion, race and ethnicity, the founding organizations and individuals envisioned an organization that would enable NGOs to work in partnership across those barriers, thereby weaving a selfless social fabric essential to establishing a worldwide culture of peace. By optimizing resources and sharing vital information, WANGO provides a means for NGOs to become more effective in completing their vital tasks. With its global network of NGOs, as well as affiliates drawn from the ranks of governmental and intergovernmental bodies, business, and universities, WANGO has become an international leader in tackling issues of serious global concern. Click on the region on the map, or click on the region name below the map to list organizations.”

Research Directories and Portals

A to Z Index of the Business Reference Services Web Site (Library of Congress)

CEO Express – “CEOExpress filters and organizes the content executives need, while adding features that make their lives even more streamlined and efficient.” Fee and free, with links to dozens of reliable business, industry, news and and topical resources –

MagPortal – “® is a search engine and directory for finding online magazine articles. It also provides feeds for use on other websites.” –

globalEdge – your source for global business knowledge – “This directory takes a broad approach to international business research by providing resources across a wide range of topics via Michigan State University.” –

Editor’s Note: This guide was first published on November 20, 2005. Completely revised and updated by Sabrina I. Pacifici on: March 15, 2006, October 13, 2006, January 15, 2007, June 19, 2007, September 28, 2007, March 15, 2008, June 1, 2008, March 28, 2009, October 11, 2009, June 2, 2010, January 2011, March 2011, July 2011, December 2011, July 2012, September 2013 and August 8, 2014, December 18, 2015, June 2, 2017 and December 31, 2018.